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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
Subject Index
 
Page 6
 
 
Arabian Sea
2676.
Arabic numerals
295.
Arab-Islamic culture
285.
Arab-Israeli relations
2672, 3768.
Arab-Israeli Wars
2638, 2640, 2648, 2664, 2670, 2671, 3281, 3418, 3873. See Six-Day War (June War); Yom Kippur War (October War, Ramadan War).
Arab Language Academy
2363.
Arab League
2369, 2377, 2644, 2673, 2685, 3769, 3769, 3778, 3779, 3783, 3786, 3918, 3920, 3929, 3942, 3947.
Arab Legion, Transjordan
2397, 2398.
Arab oil embargo
2640, 3425.
Arabs
43, 44, 44, 127, 131, 273, 275, 275, 281, 281, 281, 285, 285, 285, 285, 285, 285, 286, 286, 286, 286, 287, 287, 287, 287, 287, 287, 288, 296, 297, 297, 299, 300, 300, 303, 315, 318, 321, 325, 325, 334, 334, 339, 346, 351, 360, 360, 360, 360, 360, 362, 366, 368, 373, 419, 429, 429, 429, 429, 429, 430, 430, 430, 430, 430, 430, 431, 431, 431, 431, 431, 432, 432, 432, 433, 433, 434, 434, 435, 436, 438, 443, 476, 505, 575, 794, 804, 807, 1335, 1347, 1348, 1348, 1383, 1528, 1528, 1529, 1538, 1542, 1751, 3774; Umayyad period, 289, 289, 289, 290, 290, 290, 290, 291, 291, 291, 291; Abbasid period, 291, 292, 292; in Africa, 1531, 1548.
Arabsat
3779.
Arab Socialist Party, Egypt
3911.
Arab Socialist Union, Libya
3948.
Arab Socialist Union, ASU
3910, 3911.
Arab states
1707, 1751, 1851, 1853, 2363, 2391, 2391, 2393, 2641, 2670, 2674, 2676, 2960, 3270, 3456, 3769, 3770, 3771, 3771, 3771, 3771, 3771, 3772, 3773, 3775, 3776, 3776, 3778, 3780, 3781, 3782, 3783; WWI, 1750, 1751, 1752, 1752, 1753, 1753; oil embargo, 3771, 3774.
Arab States
3456, 3769, 3771, 3771, 3771, 3771, 3771, 3772, 3773, 3775, 3776, 3776, 3778, 3780, 3781, 3782, 3783; oil embargo, 3771, 3774.
Arachosians
123.
Arafat, Yasir, Palestinian leader
2694, 3437, 3772, 3778, 3781, 3784, 3861, 3863, 3863, 3863, 3864, 3865, 3865, 3865, 3866, 3867, 3868, 3869, 3869, 3873, 3876, 3876, 3917.
Aragon
281, 322, 419, 451, 452, 469, 470, 470, 476, 478, 479, 525, 525, 525, 525, 526, 526, 526, 529, 533, 533, 533, 565, 601, 601, 601, 613, 720, 2899; union with Catalonia, 477, 479; union with Castile, 527; Spanish royal house, 607.
Aragon, Louis, artist
1905.
Arago River
479.
Arakan
844, 845, 1395, 1402, 1402, 1402.
Arakcheiev, Alexis, Russian official
1257.
Araki Sadao, Japanese leader
2511, 2511, 2512.
Aramaeans
100.
Aramaic
87, 88, 95, 106, 106, 117, 126, 127, 129, 285.
Aramayos
2255.
Aramburu, Pedro, Argentine leader
3484, 3489.
Arameans
86, 87, 87, 87, 88, 103, 103, 104, 104, 105, 106, 106, 106, 106, 106, 106, 118, 122.
Aram Naharain
106.
Aramu, king of Urartu
118.
Arana, Francisco, Guatemalan leader
2278.
Arana Osorio, Carlos, Guatemalan leader
3653.
Aranjuez
726.
Aranmore
425.
Ara Pacis
246.
Arapahoe Indians
1589.
Aras River
1349, 1349.
Aratus of Sicyon, Greek leader
210, 210, 210, 211, 211.
Araucaní, Chile
910.
Araucanian Indians
570, 570, 1660.
Araujo, Arturo, El Salvadorian leader
2280.
Araújo, Manuel Enrique, Latin American leader
1682.
Arausio, battle of
235.
Arawaks
570, 570.
Araxes River
275.
Arbed Steel Concern
2836.
Arbela
119, 124.
Arbenz Guzmán, Jacobo, Guatemalan leader
3648, 3648, 3648, 3648, 3649, 3649.
Arbitration Act, Great Britain
1839.
Arbogast, Frankish leader
264, 265.
Arcadia
168, 174, 179, 190, 202, 206, 206, 210.
Arcadian League
202, 202.
Arcadiopolis
441, 503.
Arcadius, Flavius, Roman emperor in the East
261, 265, 265, 265, 403, 403.
Arcasids
216.
Arce, Aniceto, Latin American leader
1668, 1669.
Arce, Manuel José, Latin American leader
1680.
archaeology
1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4, 5, 7, 7, 8, 8, 8, 8, 9, 9, 9, 9, 10, 11, 11, 11, 11, 12, 13, 13, 15, 15, 18, 19, 24, 28, 28, 28, 36, 41, 53.
Archaic cultures
33, 33.
Archangel
629.
Archelaus, king of Macedon
197.
Archer, Frederick S., pioneer in photography
989.
Archidamian War
196.
Archidamus of Sparta
195, 205.
Archilochus, Ionian poet
176.
Archimedes, Greek mathematician
208, 232.
Archinard, Louis, French commander
1511.
architecture
83, 87, 90, 91, 171, 171, 186, 208, 223, 229, 229, 239, 246, 260, 1733, 2702; ancient Greece, 176; Roman Republic, 229; Roman, 406; Byzantine, 406; Western Europe, 443; England, 444, 446, 513; France, 452, 524, 1179; Italy, 473; Spain, 479; Florence, 536; Russia, 558; 1500–1800, 584; England 1500–1800, 594; French Renaissance, 600; 1450–1700, 643; Italy in the 17th and 18th centuries, 735; Ottoman Empire, 794, 798, 800, 800, 808, 808; Iran in the 16th and 17th centuries, 814; Morocco, 824; Algiers, 826; North Africa, 827, 828; India 1500–1800, 832, 833; Japan 1500–1800, 857, 857; Americas, 912; and use of reinforced concrete, 984; and use of iron and steel, 984; 1800–1914, 1146; Iran, 1349; German, 1974.
Archive of the Indies, Seville
725.
Arch of Titus
246, 251.
Arciniega, Claudio de, Spanish architect
912.
Arcis-sur-Aube, battle of
1031.
Arcot
337, 834.
Arctic
13, 28, 33, 53, 956, 993, 993, 994, 996, 2045, 2656, 3275, 3458; research, 3446.
Arctic Archipelago
33.
Arctic Circle
921.
Arctic Ocean
33, 2582.
Ardabil
306, 308, 308.
Ardahan
1108, 1108, 1343, 1344, 1752, 2322.
Ardashir I, king of Persia
256, 272, 272, 272, 272.
Ardashir II, king of Persia
273.
Ardashir III, son of Kavad II
275.
Ardennes
1789.
Arditi, Italian Fascists
1944.
Ardys, Lyndian king
114.
Areas Reservation Act, South Africa
2578.
Areco, Jorge Pacheco, Uruguayan leader
3528, 3530.
Areopagus, Athenian council
180, 180, 191, 198.
Arequipa
1670.
Aretino, Pietro, Italian writer
607.
Areus, king of Sparta
210.
Arévalo, Juan José, Guatemalan leader
2279, 3648, 3651.
Argana, Luis Maria, Paraguayan leader
3526.
Argeads
182.
Argentina
40, 1647, 1647, 1658, 1660, 1663, 1665, 1665, 1665, 1666, 1666, 1667, 1667, 1667, 1667, 1668, 1669, 1677, 1677, 1704, 1705, 2229, 2238, 2238, 2242, 2242, 2242, 2257, 2270, 2603, 2603, 2679, 2698, 2791, 3465, 3465, 3467, 3474, 3475, 3475, 3475, 3476, 3477, 3477, 3480, 3481, 3482, 3490, 3495, 3498, 3502, 3503, 3504, 3504, 3506, 3506, 3506, 3507, 3507, 3520, 3521, 3536, 3549, 3552, 3858; WWI, 1661, 2242; and Germany, 2242; Great Depression, 2242, 2246; between Wars, 2242; and Great Britain, 2242; WWII, 2243, 2243, 2244; economy, 3487; Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo, 3493; and Falklands, 3494, 3494.
Argentine Anti-Communist Alliance, AAA
3491.
Argentine Confederation
1658, 1659, 1665.
Argeseanu, George, Romanian leader
2184.
Arges River
1806.
Argesul, battle of
1806.
Argetoianu, Constantine, Romanian leader
2184.
Argishti II, king of Urartu
118.
Argive School
186.
Argolis
168, 174.
Argonne, battles of the
1791, 1812. See Meuse-Argonne, battle of the.
Argos
173, 176, 178, 179, 179, 179, 187, 190, 190, 190, 191, 192, 192, 197, 197, 197, 197, 199, 199, 199, 210, 211, 567.
Argüello, Leonardo, Nicaraguan leader
3675.
Arguin
873, 875.
Argumedo, Abel Ortíz, Mexican leader
2293.
Argyll, 9th earl, Archibald Campbell, Scottish leader
676, 676.
Argyll, 2nd duke of, John Campbell
684.
Argyllshire
424.
Arhurs
461.
Ariadne, daughter of Leo I
269.
Arianism
268, 268, 273, 279, 403, 403, 404, 407, 408, 408, 418.
Arianne rocket
2703.
Arias, Arnulfo, Panamanian leader
2277, 2277, 3637, 3638, 3638, 3640, 3640, 3646.
Arias, Harmodio, Panamanian leader
2276, 2276.
Arias de Ávila, Pedro, Spanish colonial governor
895, 895, 895, 896, 898.
Arias Espinoza, Ricardo, Panamanian leader
3638.
Arias Navarro, Carlos, Spanish leader
2887, 2894, 2894, 2895.
Arias Sanchez, Oscar, Costa Rican leader
3475, 3682, 3689, 3690.
Aribert, archbishop of Milan
466.
Arica
1663, 1670, 1670, 1718, 2246, 2254, 2255, 2259.
Aricia
222.
Arif, Abd al-Rahman, Iraqi leader
3881, 3882.
Arif, Abd al-Salam, Iraqi leader
3881.
Arima, lesser lord of western Japan
857.
Arinna
112.
Arinori, Mori, Japanese leader
1450.
Arion, Dorian poet
176.
Ariosto, Ludovico, Italian poet
607.
Arista, Mariano, Mexican leader
1691.
Aristagoras, tyrant of Miletus
187.
Aristarchus, Alexandrian scholar
208, 208.
Aristide, Jean-Bertrand, Haitian leader
3749, 3750, 3750, 3751, 3752, 3752, 3752, 3753, 3753, 3753, 3753, 3754, 3754, 3755.
Aristides, the Just
189, 189, 190.
Aristippus, Henry, scholar
471.
Aristodemus of Cumae
190.
Aristogeiton, assassin of Hipparchus
181.
Aristomachus, tyrant of Argos
210.
Aristonicus, pretender to the Pergamum throne
215.
Aristophanes, Greek playwright
186.
Aristophanes of Byzantium
208.
Aristophon, Athenian leader
203.
Aristotle, Greek philosopher
68, 186, 294, 296, 300, 319, 406, 450, 452, 471, 475, 479, 638, 638, 640, 815.
Arita Hachir, Japanese leader
2518.
Aritomo, Yamagata
1450, 1454, 1456.
Arius, Christian dissenter
268.
Ariyoshi Sawako, writer
4238.
Arizona
1563, 1602, 1603, 1621, 2188; territory, 1594.
Arjuna
129.
Arkansas
9, 905, 921, 1585, 1588.
Arkhangelsk, Archangel
2067, 2596.
Ark of the Covenant
104, 104.
Arktika, Soviet icebreaker at the North Pole
998.
Arkwright, Richard, inventor
1034.
Arles
266, 411, 541.
Arlington, earl of, Henry Bennet, Cabal member
675.
Arma
870.
Armada
See Spanish Armada.
Armagh
425, 425.
Armagnac
521.
Armagnac, count of, Bernard VII
522.
Armagnacs
522, 522, 522, 522.
Armah, Ayi Kwei, writer
4320.
armaments
643, 870, 985, 1714; firearms, 320; explosives, 375; Greek fire, 430; Japan, 576; naval, 1698, 1850, 2516, 2530, 2531; treaty on naval armaments, 1710, 1719; Germany, 1722; tanks, 1734, 1754, 1791, 1791, 1801, 1801, 1812; standardization of military weapons and equipment, 2588; germ or chemical weapons, 2666, 3885, 4197; landmines, 2693; nerve gas, 3420.
Armat, Thomas, inventor
990.
Armavir
116.
Armed Forces Council
4266.
Armed Forces Revolutionary Council, AFRC
4326.
Armed Islamic Group
2883.
Armed Neutrality, treaty of
769.
Armenia
111, 116, 117, 118, 119, 119, 119, 214, 216, 216, 240, 242, 242, 243, 247, 248, 251, 253, 254, 255, 261, 272, 272, 272, 272, 272, 273, 273, 273, 273, 273, 273, 274, 275, 275, 275, 289, 291, 428, 428, 430, 431, 432, 433, 435, 436, 437, 438, 438, 499, 500, 502, 505, 564, 807, 812, 814, 965, 1120, 1258, 1337, 2067, 2076, 2322, 3297, 3303, 3304, 3306, 3308, 3308, 3309, 3310, 3310, 3312; WWI, 1749, 1753, 1780, 1788, 1788; Soviet Socialist Republic, 3296; Republic of Armenia, 3301, 3306, 3307; independence, 3301, 3306; first parliamentary elections, 3309.
Armenia Major
216.
Armenian Church
791.
Armenians
2679, 3296, 3298; and Ottoman Empire, 965, 966, 967, 1108, 1120, 1335, 1342, 1343, 1344, 1346, 1346, 1348, 2319; and Turkey, 2333; and Lebanon, 2379.
Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia
2679.
Armentières, battle of
1738, 1812, 1812.
Armfelt, K. G., Finnish commander
766.
Arminium
231.
Arminius, German tribal leader
244, 247.
Armistice of Poischwitz
1030.
Armorica
413.
arms trade, abolition of
1541.
Armstrong, Edwin H., inventor
1736.
Armstrong, Neil, astronaut
2666, 3417.
Army, Confederate
1587, 1587, 1588, 1588, 1589, 1589, 1590, 1590, 1590.
Army, Union
1586, 1586, 1587, 1587, 1587, 1587, 1588, 1588, 1588, 1589, 1589, 1590, 1590.
Army Appropriation Bill, U.S.
1611.
Army Bill, Germany
1232, 1237, 1237.
Army Comrades Association, Blue Shirts
1872.
Army Law, Belgium
1172.
Army of National Liberation, Costa Rica
3686.
Army of the Potomac
1586, 1588, 1588.
Arnhem
2619.
Arnim, Hans Georg von, Boytzenburg
620, 620.
Arnobius, Christian scholar
268.
Arnold, duke
595.
Arnold, Benedict, American commander
947, 948; treason of, 951.
Arnold, Henry H., U.S. commander
2621.
Arnold of Brescia, Italian leader
468, 468, 468.
Arno River
222.
Arnulf, bishop of Metz
407, 407.
Arnulf, Holy Roman emperor
409, 415.
Arnulfings
415.
Arnuwandas I, Hittite king
113.
Arnuwandas II, Hittite king
113.
Arnuwandas III, Hittite king
113.
Arosemena, Carlos, Ecuadorian leader
3567, 3567.
Arosemena, Domingo Díaz, Panamanian leader
3637, 3638, 3638.
Arosemena, Florencio Harmodio, Panamanian leader
2276.
Arosemena, Juan, Panamanian leader
2276.
Arosemena Gómez, Otto, Ecuadorian leader
3567.
Arouet, François Marie
See Voltaire, French writer.
Arpad, Magyar leader
103, 106, 106, 491.
Arpad dynasty
491, 491, 493, 560.
Arques, battle of
599.
Arras
404, 514, 1005, 1738, 1738, 1780, 1791; peace of, 523; battles of, 1755, 1801, 1812.
Arrebo, Anders, Danish poet
768.
Arrhenius, Svante A., scientist
1153.
Arriaga, Antonio de, Spanish colonial administrator
913.
Arriaga, Manuel José de, Portuguese leader
913, 1208, 1934, 1934.
Arron, Henk, Surinamese leader
3630, 3631, 3631, 3633.
Arrow Cross
See National Socialist Party (Arrow Cross), Hungary.
Arsaces
216.
Arsaces I, king of Parthia
213, 216.
Arsaces II, king of Parthia
216.
Arsaces III Priapatius, king of Parthia
214, 216.
Arsaces IV
See Phraates I, king of Parthia.
Arsacids
256, 271, 272, 272.
Arses, son of Artaxerxes III
124.
Arshit-vega
See Astyages, king of Media.
Arsiero, taken by Austrians
1804.
Arsinoe II, sister and wife of Ptolemy II Philadelphus
218.
Arslan, Shakib, Syrian leader
3838.
art
87, 91, 130, 131, 156, 158, 186, 223, 229, 239, 246, 1046, 1921, 2068; prehistoric, 25, 39, 57; Olmecs, 54, 54; ancient Greece, 176; China, 370, 373, 373, 375; Korea, 382; Japan, 391, 1437, 1471; Byzantium, 438; England, 446, 513; France, 524, 597, 1905; Spain, 525; Florence, 536; Venice, 539; Russia, 559; 1500–1800, 584; Low Countries, 596, 596; French Renaissance, 600; Spain in the 16th and 17th centuries, 604; Italy in the 15th and 16th centuries, 607; Germany 1500–1800, 616; 17th and 18th centuries, 646; Italy in the 17th and 18th centuries, 735, 735; Ottoman Empire, 807; Iran in the 16th century, 812, 813; India 1500–1800, 834; China 1500–1800, 851, 854; Korea 1500–1800, 856; Japan 1500–1800, 857, 859, 861; Americas, 912; 1800–1914, 1146; Denmark, 1252; Africa, 1517, 4320; U.S., 1577; Canada, 1623; modern, 1816; surrealism, 1905; pop art, 2702. See culture.
Artabanus I, king of Parthia
216, 247.
Artabanus V, king of Parthia
256, 272.
Artabazus, Persian general
189.
Artadama I, king of Mitanni
86.
Artadama II, king of Mitanni
86, 113.
Artaphernes, Persian general
188.
Artashatr
See Ardashir I, king of Persia.
Artavasdes, king of Armenia Major
216.
Artavasdos, brother-in-law of Constantine V
432.
Artaxata
248, 254.
Artaxerxes I, Longimanus
105, 124, 190.
Artaxerxes II, Mnemob
95, 124, 199.
Artaxerxes III, Ochus
95, 109, 115, 124.
Artaxias, satrap of Armenia Major
214.
Arteveldt, Jan van, Flemish leader
512, 520.
Artha-sastra
130.
Arthur, nephew of John Lackland
445, 445.
Arthur, son of Henry VII
585, 585.
Arthur, Chester A., U.S. president
1600.
Arthur, George, British colonial administrator
1488.
Arthur, Owen, Barbadian leader
3765, 3767.
Arthur of Brittany
450.
Article 231, Treaty of Versailles
1784.
Articles of Baden
1070.
Articles of Confederation, U.S.
949, 952.
artifacts
8, 11, 11, 11, 11, 13.
Artigas, José Gervasio, Latin American leader
1644, 1644, 1646, 1647, 1647, 1647, 1647, 1647.
Artios
648.
Artisans' Conference, Frankfurt
1097.
Artois
450, 521, 524, 595, 595, 604, 614, 1789; battles of, 1738, 1738, 1791, 1791.
Aruj, corsair
826, 826.
Arunachal Pradesh
3976, 3980.
Arundel, 3rd baron, Henry, in Popish Plot
676.
Arundel, earl of, Philip Howard, suspected conspirator
588.
Arundel, Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury
514.
Arusha, Tanzania
4413, 4414, 4423.
Arusha Declaration
4426.
Arvad
103, 107, 109, 109.
Aryabhata, Indian scientist
131.
Aryans
48, 66, 67, 67, 68, 86, 123, 123, 129, 129, 129, 129, 129, 133, 326.
Arya Samaj, Hindu reform movement
1397, 2437, 2438.
Arya Sura, Sanskrit author
131.
Aryavarta
130.
Arzawa
111, 113, 113, 113, 113.
Asa, king of Judah
105.
Asahara Shk, cult leader
4248.
Asante
873, 873, 873, 876, 876, 876, 877, 1506, 1513, 1513, 1514, 1514, 1514, 1516, 1516, 1516, 1516, 1516, 1517, 1517, 1517, 1517, 1519, 1520.
Asatiani, Akaky, Georgian leader
3326.
Ascanians
459.
ascetics
829.
Ascham, Roger, English writer
594.
Asen, Ivan, ruler of Bulgaria
496, 496, 496, 496, 496, 503, 503.
Asen, John I
509, 510.
Asen, John II, tsar of Bulgaria
495, 496, 497, 497, 497, 497, 497, 497, 497, 509, 509.
Asen, Michael, ruler of Bulgaria
497, 497, 497, 510.
Asen, Peter, ruler of Bulgaria
496, 496, 496, 496, 503.
Asen dynasty
496, 504.
Asgeirson, Asgeir, Icelandic leader
3085.
Ashante
579.
Ashburton Treaty
1628.
Ashdod
87, 103.
Asherah
101.
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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