II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > D. Classical Greece and the Hellenistic World > 5. The Hellenistic World, to 30 B.C.E. > d. The Seleucids and Pergamum
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
d. The Seleucids and Pergamum
304–281
 
SELEUCUS I NICATOR (“conqueror”), after securing Babylon (311–308) and assuming the royal title (304), ceded northwestern India to Chandragupta (Sandrocottus) (303). He failed to reduce Mithridates I of Pontus but gained control of Asia Minor on the defeat of Lysimachus (281).  1
 
281–261
 
ANTIOCHUS I SOTER (“savior”) succeeded upon the murder of his father Seleucus. He fought and defeated the Galatians (275, 270?). In the First War of Succession (280–279) and First Syrian War (274–271), he lost Miletus, Phoenicia, Cilicia, Pamphylia, and Lycia to Ptolemy II.  2
 
263–241
 
Eumenes I made himself virtually independent of Antiochus as ruler of Pergamum, where his uncle, Philetaerus, had ruled as governor, first for Lysimachus and then semi-independently for the Seleucids.  3
 
261–246
 
Antiochus II Theos (“god”), son of Antiochus I, secured the support of Antigonus II and Rhodes against Egypt in the Second Syrian War (260–253?). The succeeding peace restored to Antiochus Ionia (including Miletus), Coele-Syria, Cilicia, and Pamphylia (253).  4
 
250–230
 
Diodotus I declared himself independent king of Bactria. In 248–247, Arsaces I founded the Parthian Kingdom.  5
 
246–226
 
SELEUCUS II CALLINICUS (“gloriously victorious”), son of Antiochus II by his divorced wife, Laodice I, succeeded. As a result Berenice II, daughter of Ptolemy II, whom Antiochus had married in 253, provoked the Syrian War in favor of her infant son.  6
 
246–241
 
Berenice II provoked the Third Syrian War (“Laodicean War” or “War of Berenice”). Though she and her son were murdered in Antioch, her brother, Ptolemy III, invaded Asia and Mesopotamia, and ultimately forced Seleucus to surrender the coasts of Syria and southern Asia Minor (241).  7
 
241–197
 
Attalus I Soter (“savior”), who succeeded his father's cousin Eumenes I as ruler of Pergamum, took advantage of Seleucus's difficulties to secure for himself western Asia Minor by crushing the Galatians near Pergamum (230), after which he took the title “king.”  8
 
240–236
 
Seleucus attacked Antiochus Hierax (“falcon”), whom he in 241 had recognized as ruler of Asia Minor. Hierax secured the aid of Mithridates II of Pontus and the Galatians. The Galatians crushed Seleucus at Ancyra (240–239?).  9
 
229–226
 
Attalus I of Pergamum drove Hierax out of Asia Minor (229–228), after which Seleucus drove him out of Syria (227) to Thrace, where he was killed. Seleucus died and was succeeded by his son (226).  10
 
226–223
 
Seleucus III Soter or Ceraunus (“thunderbolt”), son of Seleucus II, was murdered during a war with Attalus I (224–221).  11
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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