IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500–1800 > B. Early Modern Europe, 1479–1815 > 4. European Diplomacy and Wars, 1648–1795
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
(See 1648, Oct. 24)
 
4. European Diplomacy and Wars, 1648–1795
 
Overview After the Treaties of Westphalia (See 1648, Oct. 24), European warfare and foreign policy shifted from a concentration on religious differences to focus on issues of trade and territorial acquisition. Declining powers, such as Spain, Poland, and Sweden, attempted to maintain at least regional independence from rising powers such as Prussia, France, and Russia. The struggle to maintain a balance of power as dynastic lines died out or were removed—notably in Spain and Poland—also caused tension. The scale of war and diplomacy increased.  1
 
1652–54
 
First Anglo-Dutch War resulting from the Navigation Acts (See 1652).  2
 
1655–60
 
The First Northern War, with Sweden against Poland (See 1655–60), concluded by the Treaty of Oliva and Treaty of Copenhagen. Russia, Denmark, and the empire had joined against Sweden after initial Polish defeat. The Treaty of Kardis (1661) between Sweden and Russia reestablished the status quo ante bellum.  3
 
1656–59
 
War between England and Spain. War began after the English captured Jamaica (May). Spanish treasure ships captured off Cádiz (Sept. 9, 1956) and Blake victorious (Santa Cruz, April 20, 1657). Dunkirk (1658) besieged by the English and French. The Spanish were beaten (Battle of Dunes, June 14, 1658). Dunkirk surrendered and the English retained it in Peace of the Pyrenees.  4
 
1659
 
Treaty of the Pyrenees settled the War between France and Spain begun during the Thirty Years' War: (1) France received part of Roussillon, Conflans, Cerdagne, and several towns in Artios and Flanders, Hainault, and Luxemburg; (2) the Duke of Lorraine, the ally of Spain, was partially reinstated (France received Bar, Clermont, etc., and right of passage for troops); the Prince of Condé entirely reinstated; (3) marriage between Louis XIV and the infanta Maria Teresa, Philip IV of Spain's eldest daughter. Maria Teresa renounced her claim to that throne if Spain paid the entirety of her 500,000-crown dowry. Because such a payment seemed unlikely, Louis XIV entertained notions of controlling the Spanish throne.  5
 
1661, June 23
 
Treaty between England and Portugal. Charles II and the infanta Catherine of Braganza to wed. England received Tangier, Bombay, and 2 million crowns.  6
 
1665–67
 
Second Anglo-Dutch War. England defeated the Dutch fleet off Lowestoft (June) but the Dutch blocked the Thames (Oct.).  7
 
1666, Jan
 
Following foiled efforts to mediate between England and Holland, France allied itself with Holland. English navy defeated at the Four Days Fight but successful at North Foreland. Robert Holmes set 250 Dutch merchant ships ablaze (Holmes' Bonfire, Aug.).  8
 
1667
 
England and Holland began peace talks (May). Medway Disaster (June) and English defeat of French off Martinique (June 20).  9
 
July 31
 
Peace of Breda. England agreed to the Dutch interpretation of the Navigation Acts and confirmed control of “the New Netherlands” (See 1664).  10
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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