II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > D. Classical Greece and the Hellenistic World > 4. The Classical Age, 510–323 B.C.E. > f. The Spartan Hegemony
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
f. The Spartan Hegemony
404
 
The Tyranny of the Thirty at Athens. The Athenian oligarchic party, supported by Lysander and the Spartans and led by Theramenes, set up a Commission of Thirty which was to make a few immediate reforms and then devise a new constitution. Instead, the commission, with Critias at their head, seized power and ruled as the Thirty Tyrants. They executed their colleague Theramenes when he advocated a more moderate course. Finally, 3,000 of the richest citizens were nominally enfranchised but never given any real power. Many citizens were exiled or fled to Argos and Thebes. These cities now feared the excessive power of Sparta. In the autumn Thrasybulus led back some exiles, who occupied Phyle and then the Piraeus.  1
 
403
 
In the beginning of the year, the Athenians deposed the Thirty, who fled to Eleusis, and elected a Government of Ten. These, instead of bringing in the democrats from the Piraeus, asked for help from Sparta, which sent Lysander. The anti-Lysander party in Sparta replaced him with King Pausanias, who brought about a settlement. The democracy was restored in Athens, and a general amnesty decreed, with only a few exceptions. The Spartan decarchies in the former Athenian allies were soon abolished.  2
 
403–400
 
Dionysius I of Syracuse conquered Catana (403), Naxos, and Leontini (400) and extended his control over the Sicels.  3
 
400
 
The Persian satrap Tissaphernes besieged Cyme, and the Spartans sent Thibron to hire a mercenary army and liberate the Ionians from Persia.  4
 
399–397
 
Dercyllidas took over the command of Spartan forces in Asia Minor. He played one satrap, Tissaphernes, against another, Pharnabazus, and conquered nine cities in eight days in the Aeolus. He then, against the orders of the ephors, made a truce with the Persians. The truce held, but Artaxerxes built up his fleet, putting the renegade Athenian Conon in command.  5
 
399
 
THE DEATH OF SOCRATES. Socrates was convicted in the assembly of introducing strange gods and corrupting the youth. He was sentenced to death, but although given an opportunity, refused to flee into exile. Socrates was given poisonous hemlock to drink and died.  6
 
398–392
 
Dionysius I of Syracuse fought a war with Carthage but failed to drive the Carthaginians out of Sicily.  7
 
396/5
 
King Agesilaus II (399–360) succeeded Dercyllidas as commander in Asia Minor. He campaigned in Phrygia, beating Tissaphernes' army, but was unable to defeat the Persian fleet. Persia sent Timocrates of Rhodes to bribe the leaders of Athens, Thebes, Corinth, and Argos to attack Sparta.  8
 
395
 
Athens made defensive alliances with Boeotia, Corinth, Argos, Megara, and Euboea. The Corinthian War (395–387) against Sparta broke out.  9
 
394
 
Agesilaus returned to Greece from Asia Minor with most of his force. The Spartans beat the Greek allies at the Battles of the Nemea and Coronea, but the Spartan fleet was annihilated by the Persians, under Conon, at the Battle of Cnidus. Persia granted autonomy to the Greek cities of Asia Minor and withdrew its garrisons. The Ionians then revolted from Sparta and established democracies.  10
 
393
 
Conon returned to Athens and began rebuilding the Long Walls. Athens recovered Lemnos, Imbros, Scyros, and Delos, and made alliances with Chios, Mitylene, Rhodes, Cos, and Cnidus.  11
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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