II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > B. Kingdoms of Western Asia and Africa, to 323 B.C.E. > 8. Armenia, c. 1300–331 B.C.E. > c. Urartu (Van)
  PREVIOUS NEXT  
CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
c. Urartu (Van)
c. 1300–c. 850
 
THE EARLY HISTORY OF URARTU. The Urartians were related to the Hurrians and moved into the region sometime in the second millennium. In the time of Shalmeneser I (1275–1246), the region was divided into a number of small kingdoms and subsequently became tributary to the Assyrians. The Aramean invasions of the 11th century drove the Assyrians back to their homeland (See 1078–977), and at some point afterward the kingdom of Urartu was established around Lake Van, with its capital at Tushpa.  1
 
c. 850–584
 
THE KINGDOM OF URARTU (VAN). Shalmeneser III defeated the first known king of Urartu, Aramu in 856. Sarduri I (c. 834) and Ishpuini (c. 822) also fought the Assyrians. Menua (c. 800) increased Urartian power, occupying the entire Armenian highland area, and built the walls and aqueduct of Tushpa. Argishti I (786–764) built the city of Erebuni as a royal capital. Sarduri II (764–735) reorganized the army along Assyrian lines and extended Urartian power as far as northern Syria. In 743, however, Tiglath-Pileser III defeated the Urartians and reestablished Assyrian control over north Syria. The Assyrians attacked Urartu itself in 735, annexed Urmia, and besieged Tushpa (unsuccessfully). In 714 Sargon II launched a carefully planned attack against Rusa I (735–714) and defeated the Urartian army. Although defeated by marauding Cimmerians in 707, Argishti II (714–685) kept the Assyrians at bay and built a number of new fortresses and irrigation works. Such projects were continued by his son Rusa II (685–645), who completed a new capital Rusahinili (Toprakkale). After the death of Rusa II, the Urartian kingdom declined. Sometime after 584, the Medes defeated King Rusa IV and destroyed Rusahinili.  2
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD
  PREVIOUS NEXT