II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > E. Rome > 4. The Roman Empire, 14–284 C.E. > c. The Julio-Claudians
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
c. The Julio-Claudians
TIBERIUS Claudius Nero (b. 42 B.C.E.) became emperor, when the senate conferred on him the powers and titles of Augustus. He transferred the elections from the assemblies to the senate. Already the passage of laws in the assemblies had become a formality.  1
The revolt of the Pannonian legions was suppressed by Tiberius's son, the younger Drusus. The son of Tiberius's brother Drusus, who is known by his father's title, Germanicus, and whom Augustus had forced Tiberius to adopt as a possible successor, suppressed the German mutiny and campaigned in Germany with some successes. He defeated Arminius, and recovered the eagles of Varus's legions. He was, however, recalled, probably not because Tiberius begrudged his victories, but because he found them too costly.  2
On the death of their kings, Cappadocia and Commagene became a province.  3
Germanicus, sent to install a king in Armenia, conducted himself in a high-handed manner both in Syria and in Egypt. When he died in Syria, however, the enemies of Tiberius rallied about his wife Agrippina.  4
A revolt against Rome broke out in Gaul among the Treveri, led by Julius Florus, and the Aedui, led by Julius Sacrovir. Although suppressed, it showed that anti-Roman feeling was still strong in Gaul.  5
Tiberius fell increasingly under the influence of the ambitious equestrian prefect of the guard L. Aelius Sejanus who quartered the praetorian cohorts in one camp in Rome. He encouraged the gathering of information against those hostile to Tiberius by informers (delatores) and the prosecution of the accused under the law of treason (lex de maiestate imminuta). When such trials involved senators or important equestrians, they were heard by the senate, which came increasingly to act as a court under the presidency of the emperor or the consuls. In 23, Sejanus probably poisoned Tiberius's son Drusus, in order to plot his own succession.  6
Tiberius retired from an increasingly hostile Rome and eventually settled on Capreae (Capri).  7
Livia, accused of attempting to dominate the Empire after Augustus's death, died. Sejanus secured the exile of Agrippina, wife of Germanicus (she died in 33), and the arrest of his two eldest sons, Nero (d. 31) and a third Drusus (d. 33).  8
The plots of Sejanus finally came to the notice of Tiberius, who engineered his arrest and execution. Tiberius remained in seclusion in Capreae.  9
Artabanus, king of Parthia, made peace with Rome.  10
Tiberius, dying at Misenum (Mar. 16), indicated as his successors his young grandson, Tiberius Gemellus, and the twenty-four-year-old surviving son of Germanicus, Gaius Caesar, nicknamed Caligula (“Bootsy”). Gaius soon put Gemellus to death.  11
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.