VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914–1945 > A. Global and Comparative Dimensions > 5. Technological Developments > c. Machines and Industrial Techniques
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
c. Machines and Industrial Techniques
 
 
1914
 
Conveyer-belt mass production employed in the U.S. most dramatically in Henry Ford's assembly line for Model T Ford automobile, which became the symbol for American industrial technique.  1
 
1915
 
Development of tank in warfare by British (Sir Ernest Swinton).  2
 
1920
 
J. C. Shaw developed a sensing device, controlled by a servomechanism, for a milling machine. Hydraulic trace of J. W. Anderson (1927) allowed the reproduction of complex shapes. Machine tools further supplemented by electrolytic and ultrasonic machines, and cutting machines guided by an electron beam. Development of laser (light amplification by simulated emission of radiation) by Theodore N. Maiman (1960); laser also used for precision cutting.  3
 
1920 Ff
 
Managerial techniques improved through development of “scientific management,” whose principles were first enunciated by Frederick W. Taylor (1856–1915) in the first decade of the century. Taylor concentrated on time-motion studies. Other proponents of “rationalized” production were Frank Gilbreth and Charles Bedaux. Quality control developed 1926 ff.  4
 
1923
 
First mill for hot continuous wide strip rolling of steel, based on work of John B. Tytus.  5
 
1938
 
Ladislao J. and George Biro patented the ballpoint pen.  6
 
1941–45
 
Development of rockets and missiles during World War II.  7
 
1944
 
Harvard IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, the first automatic general-purpose digital computer, completed, ENIAC (electronic numerical integrator and calculator), the first electronic digital computer, built in 1946. Development of special-purpose computers and data processors (1950 ff.), including programmed teaching machines.  8
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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