VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914–1945 > C. Europe, 1919–1945 > 16. Russia (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) > 1936, Aug. 19–23
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
1936, Aug. 19–23
 
Zinoviev, Kamenev, and a group of their followers were put on trial again, this time as Trotskyists, accused of plotting with enemy powers against the existing regime. They openly confessed to most of the charges brought against them, much to the astonishment of the world. On conviction, 16 of them were at once executed.  1
 
July
 
On the outbreak of the civil war in Spain (See July 18), the Russian government at once took the side of the Madrid government and sent airplanes and other supplies to the Loyalists.  2
 
Dec. 5
 
ADOPTION OF A NEW “DEMOCRATIC” CONSTITUTION. The Soviet Federation was recast and the Union thenceforth was composed as follows: (1) Russia; (2) Ukraine; (3) Belarus; (4) Azerbaijan; (5) Georgia; (6) Armenia; (7) Turkmenistan; (8) Uzbekistan; (9) Tajikistan; (10) Kazakhstan; (11) Kirghizstan. Russia and subsequently all other states of the Union adopted an electoral system from which no elements in the country were any longer debarred: all votes were to be equal; elections to the higher assemblies were made direct; votes were to be cast on a territorial, not on an occupational, basis; the secret ballot was introduced. The place of the congresses of soviets was taken by a two-chamber parliament (the Supreme Soviet), consisting of a Council of Nationalities (i.e., a federal chamber) and a Union Council. This parliament was to appoint a Presidium to act while the council itself was not in session. All civic rights were guaranteed, but the Communist Party continued to be the only political group permitted in the country.  3
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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