VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914–1945 > E. Latin America and the Caribbean, 1914–1945 > 2. South America > j. Brazil
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
(See 1911–14)
 
j. Brazil
 
 
1914–18
 
Wenceslau Braz Pereira Gomes, president. The temporary unavailability of manufactured imports during World War I expanded the demand for domestic industrial goods, mainly produced in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Large textile factories, mainly employing women and children, opened in both cities, coexisting alongside smaller plants and workshops. The war also spurred a shift from Britain to the U.S. as the major source of Brazilian imports and financing.  1
 
1915, May 25
 
Agreement with Argentina and Chile (ABC treaty) providing for arbitration of disputes.  2
 
1917, 1919
 
Faced with rising prices for basic goods, Brazilian workers, including women textile operatives, declared general strikes in the major industrial centers. The agro-export oligarchies, which also had interests in Brazil's burgeoning manufacturing industries, generally refused to recognize the unions and called upon the military to crush the strikes. Socialist and anarchist leaders were exiled as result of the strikes, and the oligarchic power holders refused to give in to demands for greater representation.  3
 
1917, Oct. 26
 
BRAZIL DECLARED WAR ON GERMANY. Relations had been severed on April 11 after the sinking of Brazilian ships. During the war Brazilian warships cooperated with the Allies, and Brazil furnished large stocks of food and raw materials.  4
 
1918
 
Rodrigues Alves, president. He died (1919) before assuming office.  5
 
1919–22
 
Epitácio Pessôa succeeded Alves as president. He was the only civilian from Brazil's declining northeast to serve as president during the First Republic.  6
 
1920, Jan. 10
 
Brazil joined the League of Nations as an original member.  7
 
1922
 
The Brazilian Communist Party (PCB) was founded.  8
 
1922–26
 
Artur da Silva Bernardes, president. During this time political and economic power was beginning to shift to the new industrialists of São Paulo and their allies. These emerging leaders began to form economic associations to promote their interests.  9
 
1922–24
 
Young nationalist military officers, known as tenentes since many held the rank of lieutenant, revolted on several occasions against the government, calling for social reform and a stronger central state. These movements were all defeated, but left an important legacy for reformist movements in the 1930s.  10
 
1924, July
 
Formidable tenente revolt in São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul, led by Gen. Isidoro Lopes. After suppression of the insurrection, which involved aerial bombing of neighborhoods in São Paulo, the government undertook certain economic reforms.  11
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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