II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > B. Kingdoms of Western Asia and Africa, to 323 B.C.E. > 10. Arabia, c. 850–332 B.C.E. > c. Northern Arabia
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
c. Northern Arabia
c. 850–700
NORTHERN ARAB TRIBES. Tiglath-Pileser III (745–727) received 30,000 camels as tribute from Samsi, an Arabian queen, and Sennacherib (704–681) defeated a Queen Iati'e of the Arabs (See 704–681). These “Queens” were probably tribal leaders, and the Assyrians did not establish political control in the region. Tribes such as the Abdeel and Nebaioth roamed near Palestine.  1
c. 700–400
THE KINGDOM OF QEDAR. The Qedarites were the most organized of the Northern Arabian tribes, and at its height in the 6th century, the organization controlled a large region from the Persian Gulf to the Sinai. Ashurbanipal allied himself with the King Yauta` (676–652), though he later helped depose him in favor of Abiyate (652–644). After this, nothing is known of Qedar until the 5th century, when an Aramaic inscription names Geshem and Qainu as kings. The “Geshem the Arab” mentioned in the Book of Nehemiah is possibly this person (Neh. 2:19, 6:1).  2
c. 550–332
BABYLONIAN AND PERSIAN DOMINATION. It was Nabonidus (555–539) who first conquered Northern Arabia (See 561–539). The purpose behind his mysterious ten-year sojourn in the oasis of Teima is unknown, but he subdued most of Northern Arabia during his stay. The region was peacefully absorbed into the Persian Empire in 539, and units of Arabs on camels took part in Xerxes' campaign in 480. After Alexander defeated the Persians, Northern Arabia regained its independence.  3
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.