IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500–1800 > C. The Middle East and North Africa, 1500–1800 > 2. The Middle East, 1501–1808 > a. The Ottoman Empire > 2. Decentralization and External Challenges > 1608–9
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
1608–9
 
Suppression of the Jelali rebels. Brigandage in parts of Anatolia mounted from 1603, leading to the mass flight of peasants to the security of walled cities and the mountains. In 1608, after various failed attempts to defeat and appease the rebels, an Ottoman army crushed the forces of the paramount Jelali leader, Kalenderolu Mehmed. In the following months, other rebel leaders were eliminated and the great Jelali revolts extinguished.  1
 
1608
 
Fakhr al-Din II of Mount Lebanon signed a commercial treaty with the grand duchy of Tuscany.  2
 
1609
 
A serious revolt by the soldiery in Egypt, which turned into a separatist movement, was crushed by loyal Ottoman forces.  3
 
1609–16
 
The construction in Istanbul of the monumental mosque of Ahmed I, known also as the Blue Mosque because of the dominant tone of the tilework in its interior.  4
 
1610
 
The construction in Cairo of the mosque of Malika Safiya, which reproduced the Ottoman imperial style more purely than any other local mosque.  5
The first printing press established in Lebanon (in Dayr Qazhaya). It printed the Book of Psalms in Syriac characters.  6
 
1612
 
A treaty of commerce between the Ottoman Empire and the Netherlands, granting Dutch nationals capitulatory privileges in the Ottoman Empire.  7
 
1613
 
An Ottoman army moved against Fakhr al-Din II of Lebanon for his encroachment on territories in the province of Damascus (Ajlun and Hawran). Fakhr al-Din fled to Italy but returned to power in 1618 after obtaining an amnesty from Istanbul.  8
 
1617–18
 
SULTAN MUSTAFA I (FIRST REIGN). After the death of Ahmed I, court politics secured the throne for his brother Mustafa. He proved incompetent and was deposed on grounds of insanity (Feb. 22, 1618) after three months, in favor of Ahmed I's son Osman.  9
 
1618–22
 
SULTAN OSMAN II. Although only 13, Osman proved to be an active ruler with ambitious plans for restoring the power of the sultanate. He restricted the privileges of the ulama and considered replacing the Janissaries with a new army recruited from the Anatolian population. The Janissaries revolted, killed him, and restored Mustafa I (May 1622). This was the first assassination of a sultan, and it set a precedent in Ottoman politics.  10
 
1622–23
 
SULTAN MUSTAFA I (SECOND REIGN). Istanbul degenerated into lawlessness and revolts broke out in Anatolia as the new sultan stood helpless to handle the crisis. He was finally deposed in favor of Ahmed I's son Murad (Sept. 10, 1623).  11
 
1623–40
 
SULTAN MURAD IV. To a state beset by serious political and financial problems, Murad was able to bring some stability and rejuvenation. After 1632 he asserted himself against the various power groups and worked ruthlessly to subordinate them to his will.  12
 
1623
 
Fakhr al-Din II of Lebanon obtained possession of Safed, Nablus, and Ajlun, defeating an attempt by the governor of Damascus to dislodge him.  13
Ottoman siege of Baghdad, to crush the rebellion of Bakr Subashi, a Janissary officer who built a large following among the local troops and became the most powerful man in the city. Bakr turned for aid to the Safavid ruler Shah Abbas I, who took the opportunity to occupy Baghdad (Jan. 1624) and parts of Iraq. The Ottomans recaptured the area in 1638.  14
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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