II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > D. Classical Greece and the Hellenistic World > 3. The Archaic Period, 800–510 B.C.E. > e. Central and Northern Greece
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
e. Central and Northern Greece
c. 800
 
Chalcis and Eretria, the two largest cities on Euboea, were major powers in the Archaic period, and Euboean coinage, weights, and measures were used throughout the Greek world.  1
 
c. 775
 
Chalcis, Eretria, and the Aeolian city of Cyme jointly settled a colony on the island of Pithecusae (Ischia) in the Bay of Naples.  2
 
757
 
These same cities, along with the Pithecusans, established a colony at Cumae on the Italian mainland.  3
 
c. 730
 
Eretria settled colonies at Mende in the Chalcidice and at Methone and Dicaea in Macedonia.  4
 
c. 720
 
Chalcidian colonists established Rhegium in southern Italy.  5
 
c. 710
 
Chalcis colonized Torone in the Chalcidice and subsequently founded some 30 small colonies on the peninsula.  6
 
c. 700–500
 
THE TAGEIA OF THESSALY. Before 700, Thessaly was organized into four tetrads, each ruled by a tetrarch. In the 7th century, Aleuas of Larissa organized the Thessalian League and led it as tagos, or general. The tagos was an elected office but generally held by a member of the Aleuadae clan. A federal assembly levied taxes and troops, and until the 6th century the Thessalian League possessed the strongest army in Greece. The League's loose organization, however, prevented Thessaly from playing a leading political role, though it dominated the Amphictyony of Anthela, a religious league which, by 600, included all the city-states of central Greece.  7
 
c. 700
 
Chalcis, supported by Corinth, Samos, and Thessaly, fought the Lelantine War against Eretria, Aegina, Miletus, and Megara, over the rich Lelantine plain. Chalcis and its allies were victorious.  8
 
c. 640
 
Perdiccas I of the Argead dynasty conquered the Macedonian plain and established a capital at Aegae (Vergina). Macedon was inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups, including Greeks, Illyrians, and Thracians. Whether the Macedonians themselves spoke a dialect of Greek or a separate language is a hotly debated subject. The royal family and the aristocracy, in any case, became increasingly Hellenized.  9
 
c. 590
 
THE FIRST SACRED WAR. Crisa, in whose territory Delphi lay, started levying tolls on visitors to the shrine of Apollo. The Amphictyony of Anthela, under Thessaly's leadership, and with help from Sicyon and Athens, declared war. Crisa was defeated and demolished. The Amphictyony took over the administration of Delphi and moved its headquarters there. Athens and the Peloponnesian Dorians were admitted as members.  10
 
c. 550
 
THE BOEOTIAN LEAGUE. Thebes formed the Boeotian League and began subordinating the smaller states in the region. After a long struggle, the city of Orchomenos was defeated and forced to join the league.  11
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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