III. The Postclassical Period, 500–1500 > C. South and Southeast Asia, 500–1500 > 1. South Asia, 500–1199 > b. Deccan and Western India
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
b. Deccan and Western India
Western India, thanks to the many impregnable fortresses in Rajputana, was usually divided among local dynasties from the time of the Gupta power to the advent of the Muslims.  1
c. 490–766
A dynasty of Maitrakas, foreigners of the Rajput type, usually independent at Valabhi in Surashtra, created a Buddhist scholastic center that rivaled Nalanda. Their gifts reveal that Buddhist images were honored with puja of the kind devoted to Hindu gods.  2
c. 550–861
The GURJARA horde of central Asiatic nomads established a dynasty of 12 kings at Mandor in central Rajputana. Two retired to Jain contemplation, and a third to self-starvation.  3
Arab raids from Sind (See 711–13) devastated Gujarat and Broach (724–43) and finally shattered the Maitraka dynasty (766).  4
c. 740–1036
The GURJARA-PRATHIHARA DYNASTY, by uniting much of northern India, excluded the Muslims till the end of the 10th century. Prominent early rulers were Nagabhata I (c. 740–60), who defeated the Arabs; Vatsaraja (c. 775–800); and Nagabhata II (c. 800–36), conqueror of Kanauj.  5
746–c. 974
The Chapas (or Chapotkatas), a Gurjara clan, founded Anahillapura (or Anandapura, 746), the principal city of western India until the 15th century.  6
A Dravidian dynasty of Chandellas (in present Bundelkhand) built numerous Vaishnava temples, notably at Khajuraho, under Yasovarman (c. 930–54) and Dhanga (954–1002).  7
c. 840–c. 890
Mihira, or Bhoja, devoted to Vishnu and the Sun, ruled from the Sutlej to the Narmada, but failed to subdue Kashmir.  8
c. 950–c. 1200
The Paramaras of Dhara, near Indore, were known for two rulers: Munja (974–c. 994) who invaded the Deccan, and Bhoja (c. 1018–60), author of books on astronomy, poetics, and architecture, and founder of a Sanskrit college.  9
c. 974–c. 1240
The Chalukya or Solanki Rajput clan, led by Mularaja (known dates 974–95), ruled from Anahillapura over Surashtra and Mt. Abu.  10
The Ghaznavid (Yamini) dynasty ruled at Ghazni and Lahore. It was founded by Subaktagin (977–97), a Turkish slave converted to Islam, who extended his rule from the Oxus to the Indus and broke the power of a Deccan confederacy that included King Jaipal of Bhatinda, the Gurjara-Prathihara king of Kanauj, and the Chandella king Dhanga.  11
MAHMUD OF GHAZNI made 17 plundering raids into the Punjab (defeat of Jaipal, 1001) to Kangra (1009), Mathura and Kanauj (1018–19), Gwalior (1022), and Somnath (1024–26). Vast destruction, pillage of immensely rich Hindu temples, and wholesale massacre resulted only in enrichment of Ghazni and annexation of the Punjab. Ghazni, heir to the rich artistic heritage of the Samanids of northeastern Persia, was now one of the most brilliant capitals of the Islamic world. Alberuni (973–1048) of Khiva, the leading scientist of his time, followed Mahmud to the Punjab, learned Sanskrit, and wrote the invaluable Tahkik-i Hind (Inquiry into India).  12
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.