II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > B. Kingdoms of Western Asia and Africa, to 323 B.C.E. > 8. Armenia, c. 1300–331 B.C.E. > d. Armenia
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d. Armenia
612–559
 
ARMENIA UNDER MEDIAN RULE. Around the time that the Medians took over Urartu, the Armenians arrived in the region. The Armenians spoke an Indo-European language, but their origins are obscure. They may have originated in Phrygia, or even farther west, or may have arrived with Iranian tribes north of the Black Sea.  1
 
559–331
 
ARMENIA UNDER PERSIAN RULE. When Cyrus took over Astyages' kingdom in 559, the region was absorbed into the Persian Empire. Darius I (522–486) (See c. 522–486) made Armenia the 13th satrapy of his reorganized empire. It is in an inscription of Darius that the Armenians are first explicitly mentioned (519). In 401, Xenophon and the Ten Thousand arrived in the region, fleeing from the Persians (See c. 586–330). The satrap of Armenia at the time was Orontes I (c. 401–366). His son and successor, Orontes II (366–331) was killed fighting Alexander the Great at Arbela (See 331). Alexander appointed Orontes II's son, Mithanes, to be the satrap. The dynasty, the Orontids, eventually became kings and ruled Armenia until 200 B.C.E.  2
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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