IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500–1800 > B. Early Modern Europe, 1479–1815 > 1. Europe, 1479–1675 > b. England, Scotland, and Ireland
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
(See 1485) (See 1460–88) (See 1449)
 
b. England, Scotland, and Ireland
 
 
1485–1603
 
HOUSE OF TUDOR.  1
 
1485–1509
 
HENRY VII. Henry's first act was to imprison the earl of Warwick, son of the duke of Clarence. His first parliament (1485) confirmed the crown to him and his heirs. Though the traditional medieval checks on the power of the crown were maintained in theory, in practice Henry went a long way toward developing royal power—establishment of the administrative court later called the Star Chamber (1487), suppression of recalcitrant nobles and livery and maintenance (private armies clothed and supported by nobles and representing a resurgence of feudalism) (See 1066–72), development of an efficient if arbitrary royal financial system.  2
 
1494
 
STATUTE OF DROGHEDA (Poyning's law): (1) No Irish parliament should be held without the consent of the king of England. (2) No bill could be brought forward in an Irish parliament without his consent. (3) All recent laws enacted in the English parliament should hold in Ireland.  3
 
1496
 
Percy Warbeck, a Fleming, and James IV of Scotland invaded England. In 1497 a formidable insurrection broke out in Cornwall on occasion of an imposition of a tax by parliament. It was suppressed by the defeat at Blackheath (June 22, 1497), and the leaders executed (Flammock). Peace with Scotland (Sept. 1497). Warbeck was soon taken and imprisoned in the Tower.  4
 
1496
 
Intercursus magnus, commercial treaty with Netherlands, granted mutual privileges to English and Flemings and provided fixed duties. Support of the wool trade; taxes on that trade augmented Henry's treasury and made him financially independent of parliament.  5
 
1501
 
Marriage of Henry's eldest son, Arthur, and Catherine of Aragon of Spain.  6
 
1502
 
Marriage of Henry's eldest daughter, Margaret, with James IV, king of Scotland.  7
 
1509–47
 
HENRY VIII. He was six times married: (1) Catherine of Aragon, widow of his brother Arthur, mother of Mary the Catholic (married on June 3, 1509, divorced on March 30, 1533). (2) Anne Boleyn, mother of Elizabeth I (married on Jan. 25, 1533, beheaded on May 19, 1536). (3) Jane Seymour (married on May 20, 1536, died after the birth of her son Edward VI, on October 24, 1537). (4) Anne of Cleves (married on Jan. 6, 1540, divorced on June 24, 1540). (5) Catherine Howard (married on Aug. 8, 1540, beheaded on Feb. 12, 1542). (6) Catherine Parr (married on July 10, 1543, outlived the king).  8
 
1511
 
Henry a member of the Holy League (See 1495–96) (See 1511), . Having laid claim to the French crown, he sent troops to Spain, which were unsuccessful (1512). In 1513 the king went to France in person and with Emperor Maximilian won on Aug. 17, the bloodless victory of Guinegate, the battle of the Spurs.  9
 
1513, Sept. 9
 
Battle of Flodden Field. Defeat and death of James IV of Scotland, who was allied with France.  10
 
1514, Aug
 
Peace with France and with Scotland.  11
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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