IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500–1800 > B. Early Modern Europe, 1479–1815 > 5. National Patterns, 1648–1815 > g. The Holy Roman Empire > 2. The Habsburg Monarchy > 1770, Sept. 24
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
1770, Sept. 24
 
Hungary declared that school organization would always be an affair of state.  1
 
1776
 
Hungarians granted religious toleration. Feudal service and torture as punishment abolished.  2
 
1778–79
 
WAR OF THE BAVARIAN SUCCESSION. Cause: With Maximilian Joseph's death (1777), the Bavarian house was extinct and Charles Theodore, elector palatine, legally inherited the Bavarian throne. Charles Theodore was persuaded to recognize Austrian claims to parts of Bavaria and the Upper Palatinate. Austria occupied Lower Bavaria. Frederick II convinced Charles Augustus Christian, duke ofthe palatinate of Zweibrücken, to contest Austrian claims. Saxony and Prussia invaded Bohemia, following inconclusive warfare.  3
 
1779, May 13
 
TREATY OF TESCHEN. (1) Austria retained the part of the Lower Bavaria between the Inn, Salzach, and Danube and agreed to the future union of Ansbach and Baireuth with the Prussian monarchy. (2) Saxony obtained rights of sovereignty and 9 million rix dollars.  4
 
1780–90
 
JOSEPH II, pursuing a policy of Josephism characterized by massive reforms in the hands of a centralized state designed to further economic and secular development that was begun under Maria Theresa.  5
 
1780
 
Abbeys suppressed by Joseph II.  6
 
1781, Oct. 13
 
Edict of Tolerance. A new organization prescribed for those abbeys still in existence. Connections between the abbeys and Rome were weakened and schools established, using church properties. Internal organization of Church altered and worship changed.  7
 
1781
 
Disputes between Joseph and the Dutch. Joseph demanded that the Scheldt, which had been closed by the Treaty of Westphalia, should be opened. French mediation brought about the Treaty of Versailles (1785). Joseph withdrew his demands in consideration of 10 million florins.  8
 
1783
 
Austrian Marriage Law allowed marriages to be civilly contracted and legalized divorce.  9
 
1784
 
Protestants allowed to hold church services in churches in Hungary.  10
 
1784
 
Joseph II decreed that officials in Hungary must use German rather than Latin. While primarily a practical matter, it increased discontent over the growing German influence in Hungary.  11
 
1785
 
Joseph II's plan of an exchange of territory, according to which Charles Theodore was to cede the whole of Bavaria to Austria and accept in exchange the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium), except Luxemburg and Namur, as the kingdom of Burgundy. France maintained an attitude of indifference. Russia supported the project and endeavored by persuasion and threats to induce the heir of Bavaria, the count palatine of Zweibrücken, to consent to the plan. The latter sought help from Frederick the Great, who succeeded in forming the League of the German Princes.  12
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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