IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500–1800 > B. Early Modern Europe, 1479–1815 > 5. National Patterns, 1648–1815 > g. The Holy Roman Empire > 2. The Habsburg Monarchy > 1699, Jan. 26
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
1699, Jan. 26
 
Treaty of Karlowitz (See 1699, Jan. 26) with the Ottomans. The Habsburgs secured all of Hungary except the Banat of Temesvar. The territories acquired by the Habsburgs were awarded in large part to German commanders and settled with Serbs and Germans.  1
 
1703–11
 
Revolt of the Hungarians under Francis II Rákóczi, who called upon Hungarians to free themselves from Habsburg domination. Hungarian and Transylvania insurgents deposed the emperor as king of Hungary at the assembly at Ónod (1707). This assembly was the result not only of Rákóczi's declaration but also of peasant revolts, which were closely tied to nationalist causes.  2
 
1711, May 1
 
Peace of Szatmár. Charles VI settled the controversy with Hungary and Transylvania by reaffirming Hungarian rights guaranteed at Pressburg and by the Diplomum Leopoldinum, and by issuing a general amnesty. Rákóczi refused the terms, dying in Turkey (1735).  3
 
1712–23
 
Charles VI's Pragmatic Sanction (See 1718, Aug. 2) fixing Habsburg succession was gradually passed by most of the lands concerned. It assured Maria Theresa's ascension even though the male line of Habsburgs had died out. However, her claim to the throne was still challenged at Charles's death.  4
 
1719–22
 
Austrian Ostende Trade Company founded for trade with the East and West Indies and Africa. The company was recognized by Spain, but it failed to provide the necessary impetus for Austrian colonial development outside eastern Europe.  5
 
1740–80
 
Maria Theresa.  6
 
1740
 
Maria Theresa transferred control of schools from church to state, a major step in her efforts to reform government in Austria and Hungary and strengthen the monarchy.  7
 
1740–48
 
War of the Austrian Succession concluded by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (See 1748, Oct. 18).  8
Economic Reforms under Maria Theresa and Joseph II: Influenced by physiocrat doctrine, the Austrian monarchs sought to assure exports through protectionism but also recognized the importance of skilled labor within Austria and Hungary. Internal customs abolished and the guilds were modified so that they no longer remained compulsory in some industries. Such policies resulted in growth in Austria and Bohemia but Hungary remained primarily agricultural with the exception of some mining regions.  9
 
1745
 
Maria Theresa donated a library to the University of Innsbruck.  10
 
1749, Feb. 7
 
State reserved the right to appoint professors at the University of Vienna.  11
 
1756–63
 
Seven Years' War. Austrian alliance against Prussia (See 1756–63).  12
 
1763
 
Maria Theresa established several schools and expelled the Jesuits in a continued effort to strengthen the state.  13
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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