IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500–1800 > B. Early Modern Europe, 1479–1815 > 5. National Patterns, 1648–1815 > g. The Holy Roman Empire > 2. The Habsburg Monarchy
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
2. The Habsburg Monarchy
 
Monarchs: Ferdinand III (1637–57), Leopold I (1657–1705), Joseph I (1705–11), Charles VI (1711–40), Maria Theresa (1740–80), Joseph II (coregent 1765–80, emperor 1780–90), Leopold II (emperor, 1790–92).  1
The Habsburgs faced serious difficulties in uniting and maintaining the Austro-Hungarian portions of the empire. Its diverse nationalities and threats of Prussia in the west and the Ottoman Empire in the east created difficulties for the monarchs. In addition, succession created several contenders for the throne.  2
 
1655–60
 
The First Northern War (see (See 1655–60)).  3
 
1658
 
John Amos Comenius's Orbis Sensualism Pictus, the first children's picture book, appeared.  4
 
1663–64
 
Ottoman war. Despite imperial successes at St. Gotthard (1664), Grobetawardein and Neuhäusel in Hungary ceded to the Ottomans (1664, at Vasvár). These terms were partly the result of the empire's need to make a hasty peace because of unrest in Transylvania and Hungary.  5
 
1669–79
 
Jews expelled from Vienna by Leopold under the pretense of lack of loyalty to the crown. Despite this, Jewish businessmen helped finance imperial warfare in the early 18th century but then became scapegoats when government economic policies ended in failure and bankruptcy.  6
 
1671
 
The Austrian order of police distinguished among five classes of individuals and established regulations regarding what they might eat and wear.  7
 
1675
 
A German university founded at Czernowitz in Austria. Such universities reinforced the German domination of government.  8
 
1683, July 14–Sept. 12
 
Siege of Vienna by Ottomans (See 1683, July–Sept) lifted by combined imperial and Polish forces. The siege gave Austrian troops the rationale for invading Hungary (Second Ottoman War, 1683–88). Buda taken (1687) and a decisive victory won at Nágy-Harkány near Mohács. Ottoman forces driven across Danube (1697).  9
 
1684
 
Wilhelm von Hörnigk's Österreich über alles, wenn es nur will. The book combined patriotism and mercantilism in arguing for economic and national development. However, proponents of mercantilism in Austria failed to recognize limitations placed on them by religious and economic government policies. While Prussia and many other western states developed by encouraging immigration of religious minorities, Austria continued a policy generally excluding religious minorities.  10
 
1687–88
 
Diet of Pressburg (Pozsony). Hungarian Diet recognized the male line of Habsburgs as their monarchs. Transylvania was to remain separate from the Habsburg lands.  11
 
1690
 
The sultan recognized Count Thököly as prince of Transylvania, which challenged the emperor.  12
 
1691
 
Following imperial forces' advances into Ottoman-held eastern territories, the emperor passed the Diplomum Leopolinum, guaranteeing religious freedom to Magyars, Szekels, and Saxons within Transylvania. A Transylvanian court chancery established in Vienna and Transylvania ruled as territory separate from the crown lands.  13
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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