IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500–1800 > B. Early Modern Europe, 1479–1815 > 5. National Patterns, 1648–1815
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
(See 1649, Jan. 20)
5. National Patterns, 1648–1815
a. England, Scotland, and Ireland
1. England and Scotland
HOUSE OF HANOVER (1714-1837)
Monarchs: The Commonwealth (1649–60). Charles II (1660–85). James II (1685–88). William and Mary (1689–95). William (1695–1702). Anne (1702–14). George I (1714–27). George II (1727–60). George III (1760–1820).  1
DEMOGRAPHY: Population remained largely unchanged between 1650 and 1730 but doubled in the latter half of the 18th century, mostly because of increased birth rates, as infant mortality did not begin to decline until the early 19th century.  2
Typhus epidemic struck Britain.  3
THE COMMONWEALTH. Power in the new model army and Oliver Cromwell. Legislative power theoretically in the Rump, executive power in a council of state of 41. House of Lords and title and office of the king abolished.  4
Economy: Bad harvests (1647–50) and civil war led to an increase in food prices and in rents. Lands seized during the civil war were redistributed, which facilitated improvement of lands after 1668.  5
Society: Non-Anglican congregations and radical movements flourished in the 1650s. Some congregations gave increased roles to women, who were allowed to teach, preach, and prophesy. As a result of these increased roles and women's growing independence during the civil wars, women's status improved after 1648.  6
1648, Sept. 11
Levellers' petition repudiated the notion of economic equality through redistribution of property. This notion was espoused by the Diggers, or True Levellers, who combined the Levellers' demands for democracy presented in the Putney Debates with the Leveller definition of a free Englishman as someone who could freely dispose of his labor, property, or person.  7
Diggers began cultivating St. George's Hill. Led by Gerrard Winstanley, they called for wasteland to be given to the poor for cultivation.  8
Feb. 5
Scots proclaimed Charles II in Edinburgh. Cromwell suppressed rebellion in Ireland, which raised the Irish question to a new height.  9
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.