IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500–1800 > B. Early Modern Europe, 1479–1815 > 4. European Diplomacy and Wars, 1648–1795 > 1748, Oct. 18
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
1748, Oct. 18
This resulted in a congress and the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. (1) Reciprocal restoration of all conquests (See 1748). (2) Cessions of Parma, Piacenz, and Guastalla to the Spanish infanta. The following guaranties were given: Silesia should belong to Prussia; the Pragmatic Sanction should be sustained in Austria; the house of Hanover should retain the succession in its German states and in Great Britain.  1
Third Silesian or SEVEN YEARS' WAR.  2
Cause: Before the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Maria Theresa had concluded a defensive alliance with Frederick's personal enemy, Elizabeth, tsarina of Russia in May 1746. Secret articles of this treaty provided for the reunion of Silesia with Austria under certain specified conditions. In Sept. 1750, George II of Great Britain, moved by anxiety for his principality of Hanover, signed the main treaty, the secret articles being excepted. Saxony (minister, Count Brühl) signed the treaty unconditionally. Count (prince in 1764) Wenzel von Kaunitz (until 1753 Austrian ambassador in France, then chancellor of the empire in Vienna) succeeded in promoting a reconciliation between the cabinets of Versailles and Vienna and securing the Marquise de Pompadour in favor of an Austrian alliance. Formation of a party inimical to the Prussian alliance at the French court.  3
Maria Theresa and Kaunitz induced Britain to conclude a new subsidy treaty with Russia in 1755. In June of the same year, however, hostilities broke out between Britain and France in North America without any declaration of war. Dreading a French attack upon Hanover, George II concluded, in Jan. 1756, a treaty of neutrality with Frederick at Westminster, which caused a rupture between Britain and Russia. Kaunitz made skillful use of the indignation at Versailles over the Treaty of Westminster. In May 1756, conclusion of a defensive alliance between France and Austria. In June 1756 war broke out between France and Britain in Europe.  4
Frederick, well-informed concerning the alliances of the powers and knowing that Russia and France were not in condition to take the offensive against him in 1756, decided to take his enemies by surprise.  5
1756, Aug
He invaded Saxony with 67,000 men and took Dresden. On Oct. 1, he defeated the Austrians at Lobostiz. The Saxons surrendered at Pirna (Oct. 15).  6
1757, Jan. 10
War was declared on Frederick in the name of the empire. Hanover, Hesse, Brunswick, and Gotha, however, continued in alliance with Prussia. Conclusion of an agreement between Austria and Russia (Jan.) concerning the partition of the Prussian monarchy. Offensive treaty between Austria and France (May 1).  7
1757, May 6
Frederick invaded Bohemia in four columns and won a victory over the Austrians at Prague. Frederick besieged Prague and attacked the army of Count Daun, who attempted to relieve the city.  8
June 18
Frederick was defeated in the Battle of Kolin, as a result of which he had to evacuate Bohemia.  9
July 26
Victory of the French over the British at Hastenbeck, which led to the capitulation of the British army at Kloster-Zeven (Sept. 8). The French occupied Hanover, though the treaty was rejected by the British government.  10
July 30
Battle of Grossjägerndorf, in which the Russians, under Apraxin, defeated the Prussians, under Lehwald. The Russians then withdrew from East Prussia. The Swedes began to occupy Pomerania, promised them in return for participation in the war.  11
Nov. 5
BATTLE OF ROSSBACH. The French had joined the imperial army to liberate Saxony. Frederick surprised them on the march and completely overwhelmed them.  12
Dec. 5
Battle of Leuthen. Frederick defeated the Austrians.  13
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.