IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500–1800 > B. Early Modern Europe, 1479–1815 > 5. National Patterns, 1648–1815 > d. The Iberian Peninsula > 1. Spain > 1668, Feb. 13
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
1668, Feb. 13
 
Spain granted Portugal its independence (See Feb. 13).  1
Distressed by Father Nithard's policies in foreign affairs, Don Juan refused to command the Spanish army. When one of his friends was executed for plotting to assassinate Father Nithard, Don Juan fled to Catalonia.  2
 
1669
 
Don Juan threatened Madrid with 500 soldiers, forcing Father Nithard to flee the city. Don Juan then demanded rational justice, tax decreases, and budget cutting. Don Juan was temporarily appeased but returned in  3
 
1677
 
with 12,000 men and took control of the government. Charles II had just reached his majority but, suffering physical and mental disabilities, was unfit to rule. Don Juan therefore dominated the government. However, food shortages, his preoccupation with intrigues launched by Mariana, and continued Spanish decline undermined his popularity.  4
 
1674
 
Spain joined the coalition against France and lost territory by the Treaty of Nimwegen (Sept. 17, 1678; (See 1678–79).  5
 
1679
 
Board of Commerce and Money established to approve all guild regulations, centralizing and strengthening the guilds.  6
 
1680
 
Last mass execution of accused heretics under Inquisition (120 people, in Madrid).  7
 
1683
 
The Junta de comercia established. It was unsuccessful until reorganized under the Bourbons (1705).  8
 
1684
 
Treaty of Ratisbon (Regensburg) (See 1684). Spain lost Luxemburg to France after France invaded Catalonia, attacked Genoa, and laid siege to Gerona.  9
 
1686
 
Government devaluation because of persistent hardship, in combination with good harvests that followed, led to some financial stability.  10
 
1689
 
Temporary halt to ordinations in Spain because of the large number of young single men already in the priesthood.  11
 
1690
 
Spain joined the League of Augsburg against Louis XIV and lost Haiti by the Treaty of Ryswick (1697; (See 1697, Sept. 20).  12
 
1697
 
Royal Society of Medicine of Seville founded.  13
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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