VII. The Contemporary Period, 1945–2000 > E. The Middle East and North Africa, 1945–2000 > 3. The Middle East and Egypt, 1943–2000 > f. Lebanon
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
(See 1945, May 17)
 
f. Lebanon
 
 
1943–64
 
MINISTERIAL INSTABILITY. Thirty-five cabinets held power during this span of only 21 years.  1
 
1946, March 10
 
INDEPENDENCE was proclaimed, and the last French troops departed from Lebanese soil.  2
 
1948, May 27
 
Reelection of Bishara al-Khuri as president.  3
 
1949
 
Execution of Antun al-Sa’ada, the Greek Orthodox radical, for fomenting a rebellion to overthrow the Lebanese state.  4
Formation of the Progressive Socialist Party by KAMAL JANBULAT, a Druze chieftain. The party espoused leftist ideology, but functioned essentially as a Druze organization.  5
 
1952, Sept. 23
 
Election of KAMIL SHAM’UN (Camille Chamoun) as president. He replaced outgoing president Khuri, who resigned (Sept. 18) in the face of a general strike.  6
 
1953
 
Women won the right to vote. Lebanon became the first Arab country to grant women this privilege.  7
 
1958, July 15–19
 
LANDING OF U.S. MARINES. The National Front, a broad antigovernment coalition that wished to unseat Pres. Sham’un, fared badly in earlier parliamentary elections. Frustrated at the polls, they resorted to street violence and strikes. The Lebanese Army, under the command of FU’AD SHIHAB, refused to intercede. Sham’un thereupon turned to the U.S. for help. The American government immediately dispatched 10,000 marines as an application of the so-called Eisenhower Doctrine. The crisis was defused by the selection (July 31) of Shihab as the new president. Rashid Karami, a Sunni Muslim leader of the National Front, was installed as prime minister. No changes were made in the sectarian structure of the national political system.  8
 
1964, Aug. 18
 
Election of Charles Hilu as president.  9
 
1969, Nov
 
THE CAIRO AGREEMENT. After meeting with PLO officials in Cairo, the Lebanese government pledged not to harass Palestinian guerrillas operating out of southern Lebanon. In return, the Palestinians were to keep out of Lebanese affairs. The settlement was an uneasy compromise between Christian politicians, who wanted strict controls on the Palestinians, and Muslim representatives, who fully backed the guerrilla activities. The problem became even more acute with the influx of additional Palestinian refugees after the Jordanian expulsion of the PLO (Sept. 1970). The number of Palestinians living in Lebanon at this time stood roughly at 300,000.  10
 
1970, Aug. 17
 
Election of Sulayman Faranjiyya as president.  11
 
1972, July 8
 
Assassination in Beirut of Ghassan Kanafani, renowned Palestinian author and journalist, and leader of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine.  12
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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