VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914–1945 > F. The Middle East and North Africa, 1914–1945 > 2. The Middle East > c. Afghanistan
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
(See 1911)
c. Afghanistan
1919, Feb. 20
Murder of AMIR HABIBULLAH, which touched off a struggle for the succession. His brother, Nasrullah, was proclaimed emir by conservative factions that had opposed Habibullah's modernization program and his acquiescence to British foreign policy in the region. But the emir's third son, AMANULLAH, won the backing of the army and soon emerged as the new ruler.  1
EMIR (KING) AMANULLAH. The emir, who assumed the title of king in June 1926, embarked on a modernization program that became the central theme of his reign. He introduced a series of reforms that tried, often with little effect, to reshape the government, the national infrastructure, and the legal system. The reckless pace of these reforms led ultimately to his undoing.  2
1919, May–Aug
The Third Afghan War. Afghan troops invaded the Indian frontier but were soon driven back. An armistice was signed at the end of May. In the Treaty of Rawalpindi (Aug. 8), the British formally recognized the sovereignty of the Afghan state, but also terminated their annual subsidies to the Afghan treasury.  3
Enactment of a new family code, which banned child marriage and marriages between close relatives (on the grounds that they were contrary to the teachings of Islam). The new law also put a cap on wedding expenses, including the value of the dowry.  4
Feb. 28
Soviet-Afghan Treaty of mutual recognition. The two countries signed a nonaggression pact on Aug. 31, 1926. To the Afghan government, the Soviets represented a counterweight to the pressure from British India.  5
March 1
Signing of a Turkish-Afghan treaty of friendship, as Amanullah tried to cast himself as a pan-Islamic leader. A similar treaty with Iran followed on June 22.  6
Nov. 22
Anglo-Afghan Treaty, by which Afghanistan secured full and formal independence.  7
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.