VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914–1945 > F. The Middle East and North Africa, 1914–1945 > 2. The Middle East
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
(See 1913–14) (See Nov. 13) (See Nov) (See Aug. 10)
2. The Middle East
a. The Ottoman Empire and Turkey
Production of the first Turkish film, a documentary entitled The Demise of the Russian Monument in Ayestefanis.  1
Sept. 9
Abolition of the Capitulations by the Ottoman government.  2
Oct. 29
OTTOMAN ENTRY INTO THE FIRST WORLD WAR as one of the Central powers. The huge military effort placed a great strain on Ottoman society and the economy. Large-scale conscription affected some 3 million men (more than half of whom may have deserted). The general population had to contend with rampant inflation and the shock of a 2500 percent increase in the cost of living between 1914 and 1918. Trade and communications were disrupted, and consumers faced widespread shortages of basic goods. Some areas of the empire experienced disastrous famines, such as the one that struck Syria and Lebanon in 1915–16 and claimed an estimated 100,000 victims.  3
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.