II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > B. Kingdoms of Western Asia and Africa, to 323 B.C.E. > 4. East Africa, c. 2000–332 B.C.E. > c. Kush and Punt
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c. Kush and Punt
c. 2000–1069
 
KUSH.  1
 
c. 2000–1506
 
THE KINGDOM OF KUSH arose around 2000 and was centered around Kerma, near the Third Cataract. It flourished during Egypt's Second Intermediate Period (1786–1552) (See 1786–1552). Kerma contains the remains of a brick palace and large tumuli or burial mounds. Hieroglyphic inscriptions are found only on Egyptian imports, and none of the Kushite kings of this period is known.  2
 
1506–1069
 
EGYPTIAN KUSH. Tuthmosis I conquered Nubia past the Fourth Cataract (See 1490–1426). The Egyptians built large temple complexes in Nubia, for example at Buhen (Hatshepsut) and at Abu Simbel (Ramses II). Amenophis III built the city of Gematen, opposite modern Dongola, and Thutmose III founded Napata, on the Fourth Cataract. Nubia was administered by an elaborate bureaucracy headed by the viceroy (“King's Son of Kush”). Local chiefs were also used in the administration, and an ongoing Egyptianization occurred. The population of Egyptian Kush was probably around 100,000. After the reign of Ramses XI (See 1186–1069) nothing is known of Kush until the 8th century.  3
 
c. 2500–1150
 
THE LAND OF PUNT. From the 5th Dynasty (c. 2494–2345) the Egyptians sent ships to Punt to obtain the myrrh grown there and the frankincense from south Arabia. The expedition of Queen Hatshepsut is the best known. No reference to Punt survives after the reign of Ramses III. The introduction of camel caravans in Arabia around 1000 probably ended the Puntine trade (See Economy, Technology, Society, and Culture).  4
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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