IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500–1800 > B. Early Modern Europe, 1479–1815 > 4. European Diplomacy and Wars, 1648–1795 > 1772, Aug. 5
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
1772, Aug. 5
 
THE FIRST PARTITION OF POLAND (See 1772, Aug. 5). Frederick the Great engineered the partition of Poland to quell Russian and Austrian antagonisms. Russia acquired White Russia and all territory to the Dvina and Dnieper, about 1.8 million inhabitants (mostly Eastern Orthodox); Austria took Red Russia, Galicia, and western Podolia, with Lemberg and part of Kraków (2.7 inhabitants); Prussia took Polish Prussia, except Danzig and Thorn (416,000 inhabitants). Poland lost about one-third of its territory and about half of its inhabitants.  1
 
1776–83
 
Britain and France at war in the American colonies, France siding with the colonists against Britain.  2
 
1778–79
 
War of Bavarian Succession opposed Prussia and Austria over choices of New Bavarian Royal House; resolved in 1779 Treaty of Teschen.  3
 
1793, Jan. 23
 
SECOND PARTITION OF POLAND. Russia took most of Lithuania and most of the western Ukraine, including Podolia (3 million inhabitants); Prussia took Danzig and Thorn as well as Great Poland (1.1 million inhabitants). Russia forced Poland to accept a treaty of alliance giving Russian troops free entry in Poland and Russia control of Polish foreign policy.  4
 
1795, Oct. 24
 
THIRD PARTITION OF POLAND. Russia took what remained of Lithuania and the Ukraine (1.2 million inhabitants); Prussia secured Mazovia with Warsaw (1 million inhabitants), while Austria obtained the remainder of the Kraków region (1 million inhabitants). Courland was incorporated with Russia. (See The French Revolution, 1789–1799)  5
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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