IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500–1800 > I. North America, 1500–1789 > 3. Colonial History, 1641–1737 > b. New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
b. New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania
Grant of New Netherland, from the Connecticut to the Delaware, to the king's brother, James, duke of York. The grant included the eastern part of Maine and islands south and west of Cape Cod. The region between the Hudson and the Delaware was granted by the duke of York to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret.  1
1664, Aug. 27
SURRENDER OF NEW AMSTERDAM to the English. Name of the colony changed to New York. On Sept. 24 surrender of Fort Orange, whose name was changed to Albany.  2
Line of demarcation between East and West New Jersey. Settlement of Quakers in West New Jersey (1677–81).  3
1681, March 4
CHARTER OF PENNSYLVANIA signed, granting to William Penn the region between the 40th and 43rd parallels, extending 5° west from the Delaware River. These limits brought the colony into conflict with New York on the north and Maryland on the south. The dispute with Maryland was finally adjusted when in 1767 two surveyors, Mason and Dixon, ran the present boundary between the two states. The form of government of the colony was to be determined by the proprietor. The first body of colonists, primarily Quakers, arrived in 1681 and a frame of government was provided for the governance of the colony. The government guaranteed political liberty and religious freedom.  4
Penn arrived in the colony and Philadelphia was laid out (1682). Penn entered into a treaty with the Indians (1783) which had the effect of keeping the colony free from Indian wars.  5
A group of Germantown Quakers issued the first notable antislavery document in British America.  6
New Jersey reunited as a royal province.  7
SETTLEMENT OF THE PIEDMONT, partly by newcomers and old settlers, who crossed the fall line into the areas, and partly by German, Swiss, and Scotch-Irish entering at the port of Philadelphia and pushing southward through the valleys, especially the Shenandoah. German immigration, which began with the founding of Germantown, Pennsylvania (1683), increased greatly after 1710.  8
William Burnet, governor of New York, began efforts to counteract French attempts to hem in the English colonies in the west. He prohibited trade between the Iroquois and the French. In 1722 he established a trading post at Oswego and carried on negotiations at Albany with the Six Nations. A treaty with the Senecas, Cayugas, and Onondagas (1726) added their lands to those of the Mohawks and Oneidas, which were already under English protection. The intensification of the fur trade heightened intra-Indian rivalry, enabling Europeans to extend their control farther west and deeper into the interior of Indian lands.  9
Benjamin Franklin (1706–90), journalist as well as statesman, published Poor Richard's Almanac.  10
Trial in New York of John Peter Zenger, printer of a paper, for libel. The court contended that it should decide the libelous nature of the statements made and that the jury should determine the fact of publication. Zenger's lawyer, Andrew Hamilton, argued that the jury must decide whether or not the publication was libelous. He won his suit, thereby materially safeguarding the freedom of the press.  11
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.