VII. The Contemporary Period, 1945–2000 > F. South and Southeast Asia, 1945–2000 > 1. South Asia, 1945–2000 > d. Pakistan
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
d. Pakistan
 
Many of the issues facing independent India loomed large for the new state of Pakistan as well. The legacy of a state that often preferred to deal with groups rather than individuals became exacerbated in Pakistan, where the need to explain the place of Islam in the state tempted policy makers to talk about the 'umma (community) rather than citizenry. This tension further confused the newly forged relationship of the five separate regional cultures (ranging from the Balochi and Sindhi-based communities in the west to that of the Bengalis in the east) that existed just beneath the surface of this new nation. In addition, Pakistan inherited considerably less of the infrastructure of a working state than did India; it therefore faced much larger problems in terms of communication networks and national integration, intensified by the fact that its two very distinct wings were separated by an often-hostile India.  1
The continuing power of large landlords also made the formation of economic policy and central planning much more problematic in Pakistan. No significant shift in the distribution of resources was achieved in Pakistan, nor did an overarching vision of socioeconomic change guide the use of development aid. Stagnant economic policies and irresolute ideological vision made the state vulnerable to control by the military, which aimed simply for efficient government and political stability. This, in turn, made the development of an independent civil society much more difficult to achieve.  2
 
1947, Aug. 15
 
The Dominion of Pakistan was inaugurated, with Liaqat Ali Khan as prime minister and Mohammed Ali Jinnah as governor-general. Pakistan, the Islamic provinces of India, consisted of West Pakistan (formerly the western part of Punjab with Sind, the Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP), and other muslim-majority areas) on the northwest side of India, and East Pakistan (formerly the eastern part of Bengal). The East wing had only 15 percent of the territory, but 55 percent of the population.  3
 
1948, Sept. 11
 
Mohammed Ali Jinnah died and was succeeded by Khwaja Nazimuddin as governor-general.  4
 
1949, June 4
 
The Awami League was formed in Dhaka.  5
 
1950, April 8
 
The Delhi Pact between India and Pakistan substantially reduced friction between the two dominions.  6
 
June–Dec
 
Pakistan supported the UN cause in the Korean War, profiting economically from the sudden demand for its raw materials brought on by the war.  7
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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