VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914–1945 > J. Africa, 1914–1945 > 2. Regions > c. Northeast Africa (Horn)
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
(See 1900–14)
 
c. Northeast Africa (Horn)
 
 
1914
 
The early 20th century witnessed a boom in commodity production, especially coffee, in Ethiopia. The boom was spurred in part by the development of railways, reaching Addis Ababa in 1916. Drought in Sudan, and the failure of the Nile flood, led to famine. The famine was offset by grain imported from India.  1
 
1914–22
 
Partial British authority in southern Sudan led to ethnic conflict between those under that authority and those not under it.  2
 
1915–18
 
Good rains brought about high agricultural production for export in Sudan.  3
 
1916
 
Tafari (later Haile Selassie; 1891–1975) joined a conspiracy that put Menelik's daughter Zawditu on the throne, with Tafari as regent.  4
 
1919–20
 
Inauguration of Gezira Scheme in Sudan for tenant farmer production of cotton under large-scale irrigation. Initially excellent results were followed by a rapid fall in production.  5
 
1920–30
 
Rise in exports, especially coffee, equal to contemporaneous rise in imports.  6
 
1921–22
 
Opposition to British rule became widespread in southern Sudan under Prophet Ariandhit, leading the British to impose more effective administration there from 1922.  7
 
1925
 
Completion of Sennar Dam for the Gezira Scheme, leading to an increase in acreage under cultivation to 700,000 by 1931.  8
 
1928–30
 
Ras Tafari took control following a coup d'état in 1928. He was crowned negus by Empress Zawditu and gained land and power. Zawditu and the conservative leaders resented Ras Tafari's prominence. Zawditu's husband, Ras Gugsa, led a rebellion in 1929. Following Zawditu's death, on April 3, 1930, Haile Selassie was crowned emperor. Thereafter he led a campaign to defeat rebels using air power.  9
 
1929–30
 
Tafari obtained airplanes and training for Ethiopian pilots from France, increasing central authority. A program of road building and the importation of trucks improved communication between the capital and the provinces.  10
 
1930–31
 
Collapse of cotton price and production in Gezira Scheme aggravated the effects of the Great Depression in Sudan.  11
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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