II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > B. Kingdoms of Western Asia and Africa, to 323 B.C.E. > 2. Mesopotamia, c. 3500–539 B.C.E. > d. The Amorite Kingdoms
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
d. The Amorite Kingdoms
2004–1763
 
THE ISIN-LARSA PERIOD.  1
 
2017–1794
 
THE DYNASTY OF ISIN. Late in his reign, Ishbi-Erra (2017–1985), king of Isin, drove the Elamites from Ur. Ishme-Dagan (1953–1935) was a social reformer, and Lipit-Ishtar (1934–1924) left behind an important early law code. After nine more kings, Damiq-ilishu (1816–1794) ruled as the last king of Isin.  2
 
2025–1763
 
THE DYNASTY OF LARSA. Naplanum was king of Larsa from 2025–2005, but it was Samium (1976–1942) who established Larsa as a rival power to Isin. After a dynasty of ten more kings, Rimsin (1822–1763) brought Larsa to its largest extent, defeating Damiq-ilishu of Isin and unifying Lower Mesopotamia.  3
 
c. 2000–1763
 
Amorite and Elamite Dynasties. While not mentioned in the King List, inscriptions show an independent dynasty at Eshnunna, some with Elamite names. Indeed, under Naram-Sin (c. 1830), Eshnunna and Assyria may have been united. Other independent Amorite dynasties ruled in Kazallu, Sippar, Uruk, Kish, Marad, and, most importantly, at Babylon.  4
 
c. 1900–1741
 
OLD ASSYRIAN PERIOD.  5
 
c. 1900–1813
 
THE DYNASTY OF PUZUR-ASHUR. The Assyrians probably originated as a nomadic tribe. The city of Ashur (Qalat Sharquat) is first mentioned in the reign of Sargon of Akkad (c. 2350). Around 1950 Puzur-Ashur I built the city's wall, and c. 1900, an Assyrian trading colony (karum) was established at Kanesh in Anatolia, where tens of thousands of cuneiform tablets have been discovered. The Assyrian king Naram-Sin (c. 1830) may be the same as a contemporaneous king Naram-Sin of Eshnunna, and the two kingdoms may have united under him. In any case, Naram-Sin expanded Assyria's rule to the west. In 1813, an Amorite prince, Shamshi-Adad, overthrew Erishum II (c. 1814) to become king of Assyria.  6
 
1813–1741
 
THE DYNASTY OF SHAMSHI-ADAD. Shamshi-Adad I (1813–1781) conquered Mari and expanded Assyrian power to the west. His son, Ishme-Dagan (1780–1741), invaded Babylonia, in alliance with Elam, Eshnunna, and the Gutians but was defeated by Hammurapi the Great. After Ishme-Dagan's death came a series of usurpations, and Assyria declined into 400 years of obscurity.  7
 
1830–1531
 
1ST DYNASTY OF BABYLON (Old Babylonian Empire). The 1st Dynasty of Babylon was established under Sumu-abum (1894–1881). By the reign of Sin-muballit (1812–1793) the city controlled a region running for 60 miles along the Euphrates. Hammurapi the Great (1792–1750) took Uruk and Isin soon after his accession to the throne. For over 20 years, he concentrated on building and irrigation projects, organized a centralized administration, and issued the famous Law Code of Hammurapi. In 1764, Babylon was attacked by a coalition of Elam, Assyria, the Gutians, and Eshnunna, but Hammurapi defeated the coalition, annexed Eshnunna and Elam, and expanded the empire to the borders of Assyria and the Zagros. The Babylonian king then took Larsa, made it his southern capital, and in 1759 defeated Mari and tore down its walls. In 1757–1755, Hammurapi defeated another Assyrian invasion, and when Eshnunna revolted it was destroyed. Hammurapi now controlled all of Mesopotamia, with the exception of Assyria. In this period the Amorites completely assimilated into Akkadian culture, adopting their language, religion, and culture. Two dialects of Akkadian were spoken, Babylonian in the south, and Assyrian in the north—Sumerian survived only in scholarly writing. Marduk, god of Babylon, replaced Enlil as king of the gods. The Marduk temple complex in Babylon was expanded, including the great ziggurat E-temen-an-ki (“House of the Foundation of Heaven and Earth”): the biblical Tower of Babel (Gen. 11:1–9).  8
 
1749–1595
 
Decline of the Babylonian Empire. In the reign of Samsuiluna (1749–1712), the Kassites (Kassu) made their first inroads into Babylonia, and the Sealands (the coastal region on the Persian Gulf) broke away from the empire. Under Abieshu` (1711–1684) and Ammiditana (1683–1647), the Kassites again attacked Babylon, but were driven off. Ammisaduqa (1646–1626) made internal reforms, forgiving debt and freeing debt-slaves. Samsuditana (1625–1595) ruled for 30 years in relative peace, but in 1595 the Hittite King Mursilis marched into Mesopotamia and captured and plundered Babylon (See c. 1680–1500). The Hittites did not remain, but Babylonian authority was broken, allowing the Kassite seizure of power.  9
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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