IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500–1800 > B. Early Modern Europe, 1479–1815 > 4. European Diplomacy and Wars, 1648–1795 > 1698, Oct. 11
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
1698, Oct. 11
 
First Treaty of Partition to determine succession in Spain (See 1698, Oct. 11, and March 13, 1700). Joseph Ferdinand, electoral prince of Bavaria, named as primary heir. He would receive Spain, Indies, and the Netherlands. The Dauphin would receive Naples, Sicily, seaports in Tuscany, and the province of Guipozcoa. Archduke Charles would receive the Duchy of Milan.  1
This treaty angered Charles II of Spain because he had not been consulted. In order to preserve the unity of the monarchy, he made the prince elector of Bavaria, then seven years old, sole heir to the whole inheritance, a settlement to which the naval powers agreed.  2
 
1699, Feb. 6
 
Sudden death of the prince elector and more maneuvering by the French led to the Second Treaty of Partition (March 13, 1700). Spain and the Indies to Archduke Charles; Naples and Sicily and the Duchy of Lorraine to the Dauphin; Milan to the duke of Lorraine in exchange. The two branches of the house of the Habsburgs were always to remain separate. Charles II signed a new will, making Louis's grandson, Philip of Anjou, heir.  3
 
1700–1721
 
The GREAT NORTHERN WAR (See 1655–60). Tsar Peter was at first no match for the Swedish king, Charles XII, who defeated him at Narva (Nov. 30, 1700). But Charles spent the next years campaigning in Poland, thus giving Peter an opportunity to reorganize this army on European lines and to construct a fleet in the Baltic.  4
 
1709, July 8
 
The BATTLE OF POLTAVA. Charles XII, allied with Mazeppa, the Cossack hetman, began to march on Moscow but then turned south. At Poltava, Peter won a resounding victory that broke the power of Charles and marked the emergence of Russia as the dominant northern power.  5
 
1701–14
 
WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION.  6
Cause: Charles II, King of Spain, was childless and Europe preoccupied with finding an appropriate heir who would maintain the balance of power. England and Holland did not want the crown to fall to the French or Austrian monarchs; both Leopold I and Louis XIV established claims on behalf of members of their families: (1) Louis XIV at once as son of the elder daughter of Philip II and husband of the elder daughter of Philip IV. The solemn renunciations of both princesses were declared null and void by the parlement of Paris. (2) Leopold I, the representative of the German Habsburg line, as son of the younger daughter of Philip II and husband of the younger daughter of Philip IV. Both princesses had expressly reserved their right of inheritance. Leopold claimed on behalf of his second son, Charles. (3) The electoral prince of Bavaria, as great-grandson of Philip IV and grandson of the younger sister of the present possessor Charles II.  7
 
1701, Sept. 7
 
Grand Alliance of the naval powers with Emperor Leopold I to secure the Spanish possessions in the Netherlands and in Italy for the Austrian house. France allied itself with the dukes of Savoy and Mantua, the electors of Bavaria and Cologne. The other states of the empire, especially Prussia, joined the emperor. Portugal afterward joined the Grand Alliance and in 1703 Savoy did likewise, deserting France. Allied victory at Carpi and Chiara.  8
 
1702
 
Drawn battle at Luzzara gave France the advantage in Italy until 1706.  9
 
1703
 
The Bavarians invaded Tyrol but were repulsed. Eugene went to Germany along the Rhine. Marlborough invaded the Spanish Netherlands. Archduke Charles landed in Spain and invaded Catalonia, where he established himself as Charles III.  10
 
1704
 
The English captured Gibraltar.  11
 
Aug. 13
 
Battle of Höchstädt and Blenheim (Blindheim). Bavarians and French (Tallard) defeated by Eugene and Marlborough.  12
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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