VII. The Contemporary Period, 1945–2000 > H. The Pacific Region, 1944–2000 > 2. The Philippines, 1945–2000
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
(See 1942, Jan. 2)
2. The Philippines, 1945–2000
The history of the postindependence Philippines has been characterized by complex social, economic, and political problems. Population increases led to internal migration, most notably to Manila and to Mindanao, creating serious urban problems in the former and exacerbating tensions between Muslims and non-Muslims in the latter. In addition, many Filipinos left the country to work overseas during this period.  1
Initial economic growth gave way to stagnation in the 1980s. Rural poverty has been a persistent problem; all attempts at land reform have proved ineffective. Bureaucratic inefficiency, political corruption, and the dominance of the elite in almost all areas of national life contributed to popular discontent. Guerrilla insurgencies, involving leftist groups and also Muslim separatists, have continued with varying intensity from the time of independence to the 1990s. Political life has been volatile, marked by a long period of dictatorship under Ferdinand Marcos in the 1970s and 1980s. Military interference in politics has been a further complicating factor. Relations with the U.S. have also been problematic, especially over the question of military bases: nationalistic Filipinos often categorized the relationship as neocolonial.  2
The commonwealth government was officially restored under Osmena. Manila was liberated in March. The war had seriously damaged the Philippine economy, and disillusionment with the elites who had collaborated with the Japanese was prevalent. Antagonism between landlords and tenants also increased during the war.  3
1946, April 23
Manuel Roxas became president, against the background of the Hukbalahap (Huk) insurrection, a Marxist guerrilla movement that had been active during the war and sought redress of social inequalities.  4
The Bell Trade Relations Act gave the Philippines free trade access to U.S. markets until 1954. This measure was designed to help economic recovery after the war.  5
July 4
The Philippines was formally declared an independent republic.  6
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.