VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914–1945 > H. East Asia, 1902–1945 > 3. Mongolian People's Republic, 1911–1926
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
3. Mongolian People's Republic, 1911–1926
During the Chinese Revolution of 1911, northern Mongol princes, with the support of tsarist Russia, proclaimed an autonomous Outer Mongolia, with Bogdo Gegen, the Living Buddha, as the khan, thus ending the suzerainty of China over Outer Mongolia. But Chinese troops reoccupied Mongolia during 1919–20 after the Russian Revolution.  1
The First Congress of the Mongolian People's Party (Communist, renamed as the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party in 1924) was held in Kyakhta on March 1, and the basic task of the Party program was national liberation and the establishment of an independent state. The Mongolian People's Army defeated Chinese occupying forces in March. Mongolian and Soviet troops overcame the Urgen White Guard bands, and a permanent People's Government of Mongolia was formed in July 1921. Serfdom and the institution of hereditary feudal rulers were abolished in 1922.  2
After the death of the Living Buddha in May, the People's Revolutionary Party and the People's Government adopted a resolution to abolish the monarchy and introduce the republican system in June. The first Grand People's Hural legally proclaimed the Mongolian People's Republic and approved its constitution in November.  3
1925, Oct
The Fourth Party Congress adopted the second Party program, which centered on the social and political consolidation of the revolution as the basic task. Beginning in 1929, large landholdings of feudal lords were confiscated and those of monasteries in 1938.  4
1926, Sept
Enactment of a law on separation of the Church and the State. (See The Republic of Mongolia (The Mongolian People's Republic), 1945–2000)  5
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.