VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914–1945 > E. Latin America and the Caribbean, 1914–1945 > 2. South America > d. Uruguay
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
(See 1903–7)
 
d. Uruguay
 
In the first decades of the 20th century, Uruguay enjoyed comparative stability and affluence. Massive waves of immigration in the late 19th century and increased trade with Britain brought a great deal of prosperity. After 1910 JOSÉ BATLLE Y ORDÓÑEZ (1856–1929) created a two-party system to prevent factionalism. The majority party, the Colorados (representing the middle and working classes), fought the Blancos (a mainly rural party) in subsequent elections.  1
 
1907–11
 
Claudio Williams administration.  2
 
1911–15
 
José Batlle y Ordóñez administration.  3
 
1915–19
 
Feliciano Viera administration.  4
 
1919–23
 
During the administration of Baltasar Brum, as in those of his three predecessors and his successors, many social and administrative reforms were initiated and the internal development of the country was rapid. Immigration and urbanization continued throughout the period.  5
 
1917
 
On the entry of the U.S. into the First World War, Uruguay expressed solidarity and later severed relations with Germany.  6
 
1919, March 1
 
A new constitution curtailed the powers of the president, created the National Council of Administration (nine members elected by popular vote and endowed with important functions), and disestablished the Roman Catholic Church. The council was designed to assuage Blanco opposition to continued Colorado rule and prevent them from seeking nonelectoral means of gaining power.  7
 
1920
 
Uruguay joined the League of Nations.  8
 
1923–27
 
José Serrato, president.  9
 
1927–31
 
Juan Compisteguy, like Serrato before him, continued and accelerated the policy of social reform until Uruguay began to feel the pinch of the Great Depression.  10
 
1931–38
 
GABRIEL TERRA (1873–1942), president. He represented the more advanced wing of the Liberal Party, and soon found himself in conflict with the National Council of Administration concerning the division of executive authority. This period began Uruguay's experiment with state-subsidized import substitution industrialization, funded mainly with revenues from livestock exports.  11
 
1932
 
National women's suffrage recognized.  12
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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