VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914–1945 > C. Europe, 1919–1945 > 16. Russia (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
(See 1914, Aug. 1)
 
16. Russia (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)
 
THE GERMAN ATTACK ON SOVIET RUSSIA, 1941-43 (MAP)
On Germany's declaration of war (Aug. 1, 1914), the opposition parties in Russia declared their readiness to put aside domestic quarrels and support the government. Since the government failed to respond, political discontent developed rapidly.  1
 
1915, May
 
The Russian defeat in Galicia deeply stirred public opinion (See May 2), and the government was openly accused of inefficiency in failing to supply the armies.  2
 
June 25
 
The tsar was obliged to dismiss Gen. Vladimir Sukhomlinov, the minister of war (tried and convicted by the provisional government in 1917), and to admit representatives of the duma and other public bodies (the Union of Zemstvos and Municipalities, the War Industry Committee, and others) to direct participation in the work of army supply and the mobilization of industry. Tsar Nicholas refused, however, to comply with the demand of the progressive bloc in the duma for an entirely new ministry that would enjoy the confidence of the country and be committed to a more liberal policy.  3
 
Sept. 5
 
The situation was aggravated when the tsar dismissed the popular commander-in-chief Grand Duke Nicholas and assumed the command himself. The tsar's absence from the capital opened the way for domination by Empress Alexandra, known to be bitterly hostile to the duma and under the influence of Gregory Rasputin.  4
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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