VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914–1945 > B. World War I, 1914–1918 > 2. The Eastern Front, 1914–1915 > 1915
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
The idea of Hindenburg and Ludendorff was to concentrate more and more troops in the east, in the hope of enveloping the Russians by an advance from East Prussia. But Falkenhayn insisted on the attempt to reach a decision in the west. This difference of view led to acute tension and a threat by Hindenburg to resign. Ultimately the emperor decided that the newly formed tenth army should be sent to the east, but Falkenhayn had it sent to the Galician front, partly to relieve the Austrians, partly to act as the southern shear in a movement to force the further withdrawal of the Russians from Poland.  1
April 2–25
The Austrians, with the aid of a German South Army (Gen. Alexander von Linsingen), drove the Russians back from the Carpathians. An 11th army, under Mackensen, was then formed to cooperate with the Austrian forces from the region southeast of Cracow, in the direction of Przemysl.  2
May 2
Beginning of the great Austro-German offensive in Galicia. By the end of June the Austro-German forces had advanced almost 100 miles, had liberated Galicia and Bukovina, and had taken huge numbers of prisoners. The Russian armies on this front were completely demoralized.  3
The failure of the British at the Dardanelles (See Aug. 10–11) enabled the Germans to postpone a projected campaign in Serbia designed to make direct contact with the Ottomans, and to exploit further their great successes against Russia. They now planned to organize a much greater operation in northern Poland as part of a pincer movement to trap the Russians.  4
July 1
Beginning of the second great offensive. When the German and Austrian advance came to a stop in September the Russians had lost all of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland, along with almost a million men. The line in September ran from west of Riga and Dvinsk almost due south to Baranovici (German) and Pinsk (Russian) and thence farther south to Dubno (Austrian), Tarnopol (Russian), and Czernowitz (Austrian).  5
Sept. 5
The Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaievich was relieved of the supreme command and sent as viceroy to the Caucasus. The supreme command was taken over by the tsar in person. (See The Eastern Front, 1916–1917)  6
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.