VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914–1945 > B. World War I, 1914–1918 > 15. The Settlements in Eastern Europe, 1917–1918
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
(See Dec. 15) (See 1917, Jan)
15. The Settlements in Eastern Europe, 1917–1918
While discussion of peace among the western powers led to an impasse, the winter of 1917–18 produced a settlement in the east.  1
1916, Nov. 5
The Germans, in occupation of Poland, announced the formation of an independent Polish state. The object of this move, inspired by the military men, was to win over the Poles and induce them to enlist on the German side. This hope was sadly disappointed.  2
1917, March 30
The Russian provisional government recognized the independence of Poland.  3
April 5
The British government adhered to the principle of an independent and united Poland.  4
Sept. 12
The Central powers granted a constitution to what was formerly Russian Poland and appointed a regency council (Oct. 15).  5
Nov. 7
The Bolshevik Revolution in Russia (See Nov. 7). Lenin and his followers, who regarded the war as a capitalist and imperialist venture, were in favor of a peace without annexations or indemnities, and were determined to make peace, which the Russian people yearned for. The old Russian Empire, indeed, was already dissolving.  6
Nov. 20
The Ukrainians proclaimed the Ukrainian People's Republic.  7
Nov. 21
The Bolshevik government, having invited all belligerents (Nov. 8) to make peace on the basis of no annexations and no indemnities, and having elicited no reply, opened separate discussions with the Central powers.  8
Nov. 28
The local Diet proclaimed the independence of Estonia.  9
Dec. 3
Opening of peace conference at Brest-Litovsk. Germany (Kühlmann), Austria (Czernin), and their allies negotiated an armistice with Russia (represented by Leon Trotsky).  10
Dec. 6
Finland proclaimed its independence.  11
Dec. 23
Proclamation of the Moldavian (Bessarabian) Republic.  12
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.