V. The Modern Period, 1789–1914 > I. Latin America, 1806–1914 > 3. Latin America, 1820–1914 > d. Mexico
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
d. Mexico
 
The wars of independence left the Mexican economy in ruins. Elites were deeply divided between conservatives aiming to preserve the colonial order and liberals trying to reduce the power of the church. Caudillos emerged to claim power for themselves, creating further disturbances in the countryside, where many peasants joined irregular armies.  1
 
1822
 
Gen. ANTONIO LÓPEZ DE SANTA ANNA (1794–1876) rebelled against the emperor Agustín I (Agustín Iturbide) and declared himself in favor of the republic.  2
 
1823
 
Iturbide was forced into exile. A junta of three generals, including liberal Guadalupe Victoria, was formed. Conservative Lucas Alamán (1792–1853) was named foreign minister.  3
 
1824
 
A constitution maintained military and ecclesiastical fueros, and Catholicism remained the official religion. Guadalupe Victoria won the presidency.  4
 
1828
 
Santa Anna imposed Vicente Guerrero as president.  5
 
1829, Sept
 
A law abolished slavery, provoking protests from Texas colonizers.  6
 
1830
 
Vice president Gen. Anastasio Bustamante (1780–1853) seized power and named conservative Alamán as chief minister. He raised tariffs to protect the textile industry. Guerrero rebelled but was defeated.  7
 
1832
 
Santa Anna rose up against the government. Alamán and Bustamante were exiled.  8
 
1833, April 1
 
Santa Anna was named president. His government was dominated by the liberal federalist minister of education, José María Luis Mora (1794–1850). Legislation disentailed some church property; the military lost the fuero.  9
 
1834
 
Conservatives called upon Santa Anna to restore “religion and fueros.” Liberals were expelled from Congress.  10
 
1835
 
Federalist constitution was suspended, moving Yucatán to secede and Texans to revolt against the central government. Santa Anna led his troops against rebels.  11
 
1836, April 21
 
Texans defeated Santa Anna at San Jacinto (See 1836), forcing him to accept Texas's independence. Centralists staged a comeback with Bustamante as president.  12
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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