V. The Modern Period, 1789–1914 > I. Latin America, 1806–1914 > 3. Latin America, 1820–1914 > c. Central America > 6. Honduras
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
6. Honduras
Conservative hegemony. After Morazán's defeat, Gen. Francisco Ferrera assumed the presidency and kept close contacts with conservatives of Guatemala and El Salvador. Allied with the clergy, he reinstated the tithes and colonial legislation. In 1845, he defeated liberal invaders.  1
Juan Lindo attempted to reconstruct Central American unity, going to war with Guatemala (1851). Founding of National University.  2
José Trinidad Cabañas assumed the presidency.  3
Salvadorean José Santos Guardiola, with Guatemalan support, invaded Honduras and took power. William Walker attempted to invade Honduras in 1860. British returned the Bay Islands and part of Mosquitia to Honduras. Inhabitants of these areas obtained religious freedom, which led to a proclerical uprising (1861). Guardiola was assassinated in 1862.  4
After a year-long civil war, conservative general José María Medina, backed by Carrera, assumed power. A new constitution founded the Republic of Honduras (1865).  5
Civil war between conservatives and liberals.  6
Liberal era. Marco Aurelio Soto (1846–1908) initiated liberal predominance by making a pact with conservatives. Foreign investment expanded. The army was reorganized, and mining was developed. Luis Bográn succeeded Soto (1883–87 and 1887–91). His reelection provoked divisions among liberal caudillos. The Progressive Party, led by Bográn, supported Ponciano Leiva, who assumed the presidency (1891–93). His election marked the beginning of constant liberal uprisings. Domingo Vázquez (1893–94), Policarpo Bonilla (1894–99), Terencio Sierra (1899–1903), Manuel Bonilla (1903–7), and Manuel R. Dávila (1907–11) occupied the presidency. Land concessions to foreign banana firms began, though local growers managed to control production until 1913. Foreign companies controlled shipping and distribution, and interfered in Honduran politics. An agrarian proletariat emerged on banana plantations. Population was 381,938 inhabitants. (See Honduras)  7
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.