V. The Modern Period, 1789–1914 > B. The French Revolution and Europe, 1789–1914 > 7. Western and Central Europe, 1848–1914 > e. The Iberian Peninsula
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
(See 1846, Oct. 10)
e. The Iberian Peninsula
1. Spain
1851, March 16
A concordat with the papacy recognized the Catholic religion as the sole authorized faith and gave the church sweeping control of education and censorship. The papacy recognized the abolition of ecclesiastical jurisdictions and the sale of confiscated church lands.  1
A constitutional reform virtually eliminated the powers of the Cortes, established the dictatorship in law, and gave a camarilla financial oligarchy, or complete power.  2
Revolution began in the wake of the introduction of the self-acting mule (spinning machine) and of widespread unrest because of economic hardship culminating in a general strike (1854) among textile workers. Hostility toward workers' organizations increased, and they were suppressed after the revolution. Wheat prices rose due to the loss of supplies from Russia during the Crimean War and a famine in Galicia. Gen. Leopoldo O'Donnell overthrew the government, and the Cortes adopted a number of liberal reforms including a law confiscating church lands. Isabella threatened to abdicate, and Gen. Baldomero Espartero resigned (July 15, 1856) in favor of O'Donnell, who reestablished the constitution of 1845. O'Donnell was dismissed, and two years of reaction followed. The revolution failed in some respects but did lay the groundwork for economic reforms such as railway expansion.  3
O'Donnell returned to power and governed with the support of the Liberal Union, a party organized by him during the revolution.  4
The Economist, a liberal periodical stressing laissez-faire economics, began publication.  5
Father Claret came to Madrid to serve as the queen's confessor. He became the center of the political Catholic movement, seeking to counter rising anticlericalism.  6
A budget created a base for financing public works by extending the disentailing laws.  7
Foreign policy concentrated on maintaining and extending the empire. Spanish troops captured Tetuán in their successful campaign against the Moors in Morocco (1860). Santo Domingo was annexed but was relinquished after an insurrection on the island (1865). Spain joined France and Britain in intervention in Mexico (1861) and engaged in a dispute over the Chincha Islands with Peru (1864–65). War with Chile (1865–66) (See 1866).  8
1863, Sept. 8
Progressives boycotted politics (the retraimiento) as the government failed to incorporate them.  9
1868, June 22
In the mutiny of San Gil, artillery sergeants shot their officers in protest against exclusiveness of the officer corps and in response to democratic propaganda. O'Donnell ordered the death of 60 sergeants in the aftermath. The mutiny marked the disintegration of the government, which, after the death of O'Donnell, collapsed in revolution.  10
Sept. 18
Revolution was declared by Adm. Juan Topete, followed by a manifesto by the liberal generals.  11
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.