V. The Modern Period, 1789–1914 > B. The French Revolution and Europe, 1789–1914 > 5. Revolutions in Europe, 1848–1852 > c. Austria and Bohemia
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
(See 1842–44)
 
c. Austria and Bohemia
 
 
1848, March 11
 
Prague meeting drew up Twelve Articles of St. Wenceslas, demanding Czech-German equality in education and government service.  1
 
March 13–14
 
Students in Vienna marched to the Landhaus to present a petition after hearing Kossuth's speech read aloud. The crowd reached the Hofburg where the Diet sat and, when the guards would allow only the delegates in, began to spread throughout the streets and squares surrounding the Hofburg. Alarmed by their large numbers, the authorities fired on the crowd in an effort to clear the area. Meanwhile, workers had been prevented from entering the city. They burned several factories and looted shops in protest.  2
 
March 15
 
the emperor summoned the Diet to begin consideration of a constitution.  3
 
April 8
 
Czechs obliged Vienna to promise a Bohemian constitutional assembly. Revolutionary movements also took place in Galicia, Moravia, and elsewhere.  4
 
April 25
 
The new government, under Pillersdorf, published a new constitution. The new constitution provided for a bicameral legislature with a Senate composed of both life members and members elected by the great landowners and a Chamber of Deputies elected by voters who met a high property qualification, thus limiting the vote so that workers would not be directly represented. Women could not vote.  5
 
May 9
 
A new electoral law, passed in response to demonstrations, enabled the lower middle class and the peasants to vote but excluded workmen who were paid by the day or the week, domestic servants, those receiving public assistance, and all women.  6
 
May 14
 
The government dissolved the Central Committee, formed by students and members of the National Guard during March.  7
 
May 15
 
The Storm Petition (Sturmpetition). Students, workers, and the members of the National Guard marched to the Hofburg and demanded that the government establish universal adult male suffrage, that the army be called up only at the request of the National Guard, and that parliament consist of a single chamber. The government promised to revise the constitution. The emperor and his family fled to Innsbruck.  8
 
May 26
 
The government retrenched and ordered the dissolution of the University Legion, and the troops ordered the National Guard to stand down. As a result, barricades went up throughout Vienna, and the workers and National Guard came to the students' aid. A committee of safety controlled Vienna during the following months.  9
 
June
 
The first Pan-Slav Congress (composed, however, almost entirely of Czech delegates) met at Prague under the presidency of Francis Palácky, the eminent Bohemian historian and national leader. It proclaimed the solidarity of the Slavic peoples (as against the Germans), but stressed also the equality of all peoples, and proposed a European congress to deal with outstanding international problems.  10
 
June 12
 
The Princess Windischgrätz, wife of the commander of the forces at Prague, was accidentally shot and killed during a student demonstration. Prince Alfred Windischgrätz, who favored strong repressive measures, seized this opportunity to bring up reinforcements.  11
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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