V. The Modern Period, 1789–1914 > A. Global and Comparative Dimensions > 2. Intensifications of Global International and Economic Relations, 1860–1914 > c. International Diplomacy
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
c. International Diplomacy
 
European conflicts over spheres of influence in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East and efforts by non-European states to maintain at least some degree of independence were the central ingredients in international relations between 1870 and 1914.  1
 
1869
 
OPENING OF THE SUEZ CANAL reoriented imperial strategic thinking and gave added importance to the Ottoman Empire in international diplomacy.  2
 
1871
 
Conference of London redefined Russian rights in the Black Sea.  3
 
1875–78
 
Insurrections in Bosnia and Bulgaria (See July–1876, May) led to Ottoman intervention and diplomatic tensions involving Russia and Austria. Negotiations between these two powers were supplemented by international conferences. In Dec. 1876, the Constantinople Conference featured British efforts to negotiate a Balkan settlement, but the Ottoman leaders rejected all proposals. Russia declared war on the Ottomans in 1877, which roused British opposition (eager to protect the region from any great-power dominance that might threaten its route to India) and German attempts to prevent a more general conflagration. This led to Bismarck's arranging of the Berlin Congress (June 13–July 13, 1878) (See July 13), the first great international settlement conference in the new imperialist age. The conference rearranged control of the Balkans, granted Russia territory in Central Asia, gave France the green light to take over Tunisia, and granted Cyprus to Britain. Most European powers gained, in sum, at the expense of the Ottoman Empire.  4
 
1882, July 11
 
Bombardment of Alexandria, Egypt, by the British fleet.  5
 
Sept. 13
 
Defeat of the Egyptians by the British in the Battle of Tel-el-Kebir. British occupation of Egypt (See 1882, Sept).  6
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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