V. The Modern Period, 1789–1914 > A. Global and Comparative Dimensions > 2. Intensifications of Global International and Economic Relations, 1860–1914
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
2. Intensifications of Global International and Economic Relations, 1860–1914
 
The period was characterized by the domination of global international relations by European powers. By the same token, world diplomacy took on new meaning, as clashes in various parts of the world led to negotiations and alliances, sometimes including non-European powers as well. International conferences, dominated by the European great powers, periodically tried to resolve disputes in the Balkans, Africa, the Middle East, and elsewhere; conference diplomacy on a world scale was another important diplomatic innovation. European negotiations also formulated some new international agreements concerning the conduct of war, international law, and global facilities such as postal service. Finally, the intensification of global relations also included growing international commerce, dominated by Europe and the United States but with growing impact on local economies almost everywhere.  1
 
a. International Agreements
 
During the second half of the 19th century, not only governments but also private organizations formed a growing number of international arrangements. Most of these centered on pacts among European countries, but North America and to some extent other areas were drawn in.  2
 
1851
 
International commercial exhibit at London's new Crystal Palace, the first of a regular series of international exhibitions stretching into the 20th century. Major subsequent world's fairs, to 1914: Paris, 1855; Philadelphia, 1876; Sydney, 1879–80; New Orleans, 1884; Antwerp, 1885; Paris, 1889; Chicago, 1893; Budapest, 1896; Brussels, 1897; Paris, 1900; St. Louis, 1904.  3
The International Statistical Congress began meeting to standardize statistical practices of the European governments.  4
 
1863
 
An informal committee met to prepare rights for neutral parties to aid the wounded during wars. The RED CROSS was created as a voluntary, noncombatant organization to assist the wounded. The International Committee of the Red Cross was established in Geneva. The 1864 GENEVA CONVENTION was drafted to establish rules for the treatment of prisoners of war.  5
 
1864
 
Karl Marx organized the International Workingman's Association in London. It collapsed amid internal divisions in 1876.  6
 
1865
 
International Telegraphic Union.  7
 
1873
 
International Meteorological Organization.  8
 
1874
 
Universal Postal Union set up regulations for international postal delivery.  9
 
1889
 
The Second International, a loose federation of unions and socialist parties from Europe and North America, was formed in Paris.  10
 
1896
 
The first modern Olympic Games were held in Athens, reviving the classical Greek Olympic tradition on a potentially worldwide basis. It was held every four years until World War I, with participation from Europe, North America, and British Dominions.  11
 
1899 and 1907
 
Hague Conferences set up Permanent Court of Arbitration (See 1899, May 18–July 29).  12
 
1904
 
Fédération Internationale de Football Associations—an international body to coordinate soccer (association) football.  13
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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