IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500–1800 > H. Latin America, 1500–1800 > 6. New Spain, 1518–1574 > c. Expansion to the North and the Pacific Coast
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
c. Expansion to the North and the Pacific Coast
Cortés subdued the region of the Pánuco River and founded a town. Indian revolt suppressed by Cortés's lieutenant (1523). The Pánuco district became subject to the crown, with Nuño de Guzmán as governor (1527).  1
Guzmán, as first president of the audiencia of New Spain, conquered Chichimeca areas to the north and west of Mexico City, including Jalisco and Sinaloa. Guadalajara founded (c. 1530). This area was called Nueva Galicia, of which Compostela became the capital (1531).  2
In the interior, Spanish expansion was slower. Spanish subdued Querétaro in 1531. Francisco de Urdiñola founded San Luis de Potosí in 1550.  3
In search of a strait and of new lands, Cortés dispatched an expedition that reached northern Sinaloa and Baja California.  4
Cortés attempted to found a colony in Baja California but failed. Francisco de Ulloa reached the head of the Gulf of California (1539). Alarcón, cooperating by sea with Coronado's expedition to New Mexico, reached the same district and traveled up the Colorado River (1540).  5
Viceroy Mendoza sent the Franciscan Fray Marcos de Niza northward to investigate reports by Cabeza de Vaca about the legendary Seven Cities of Cíbola. He reached the Zuñi pueblos of New Mexico and returned with exaggerated reports.  6
Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, governor of Nueva Galicia, led an expedition overland to the new lands, while Hernando de Alarcón went on by sea along the Pacific coast. Coronado reached the Zuñis, and his lieutenants reached the Moqui pueblos and the Grand Canyon of the Colorado. Coronado traversed northern Texas, Oklahoma, and eastern Kansas before his return.  7
Natives of Nueva Galicia rose in revolt against abuses committed by Nuño de Guzmán. Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza subdued them.  8
As part of his project for South Sea discovery, Viceroy Mendoza sent Juan Rodríguez de Cabrillo to search for a northern strait. Cabrillo and, after his death, the pilot Bartolomé Ferrelo explored the Pacific coast as far as Oregon.  9
Discovery of rich silver mines in Zacatecas.  10
An audiencia was created to govern Nueva Galicia, Guadalajara becoming the political and ecclesiastical capital.  11
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.