IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500–1800 > D. South and Southeast Asia, 1500–1800 > 2. Southeast Asia, 1500–1800 > b. Kedah
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
b. Kedah
Like Perak, Kedah was a Muslim state with a political structure and culture based on the model of the Malacca Empire, having a Muslim sultan at the center of power who was assisted by ministers drawn from powerful local families.  1
Unlike other Malay states such as Perak, Salalngor, Pahang, and Negeri Sembilan, which by 1896 had surrendered most control to the British, Kedah maintained internal independence and strong cohesion within the ruling class. Relatively limited economic resources precluded the formation of a large body of aristocrats; consequently, members of the ruling family were appointed to most political posts. Dependent more on rice crop than on trade, Kedah was also spared the disruption of the large-scale Chinese immigration that occurred in southern Malay states.  2
1713, 1722, and 1770
Civil wars in these years involved jostling within the Kedah royal family for control; Bugis served as mercenaries for various factions.  3
c. 1741–1778
Muhammed Jiwa Abidin Syah (d. 1778). Provided stability and increased trade and rice crops.  4
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.