II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > A. Global and Comparative Dimensions > 3. Classical Civilizations, 300 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > a. The Middle East
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
a. The Middle East
The Middle East was the first region to be brought under the control of a single empire, and a long imperial tradition of regional control was established.  1
935–612 B.C.E
ASSYRIAN EMPIRE gained control of both Mesopotamia and Egypt by 665 B.C.E.  2
550–330 B.C.E
PERSIAN EMPIRE, established by Cyrus the Great (556–530 B.C.E.), reestablished full regional control after the end of the Assyrian Empire. The empire was defeated by Alexander the Great (356–323 B.C.E.), whose conquests laid the foundations for a number of imperial states in Greece, the Middle East, and central Asia.  3
330–30 B.C.E
ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSOR STATES. The Seleucid successors to Alexander's generals controlled most of the Middle East, except for Egypt from 305–64 B.C.E. Egypt was ruled by the descendants of Alexander's general, PTOLEMY (367–283 B.C.E.), until the Roman victory in 30 B.C.E.  4
312 B.C.E.–651 C.E
312 B.C.E.–226 C.E
Parthian Empire (See 247, 238?–211) was established in the eastern regions of the Middle East after the death of Alexander the Great; it expanded until it controlled most of the region except for Egypt and the Mediterranean coastal societies, which by the end of the 1st century B.C.E. had come under Roman control.  6
226–651 C.E
Sassanid Empire (See Economy, Society, and Culture) replaced the declining Parthian state and reestablished effective regional control until falling to the Muslim conquests in the 7th century.  7
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.