II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > A. Global and Comparative Dimensions > 1. Origins of Civilizations, 4000–2000 B.C.E. > c. Early, Complex Nonurban Societies
  PREVIOUS NEXT  
CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
c. Early, Complex Nonurban Societies
 
The development of agricultural productivity and complexity did not inevitably lead to the emergence of civilizations. In many areas, complex, hierarchically organized societies developed that did not create cities or develop formal writing systems. They are not formally identifiable as civilizations but are more developed than the simple Neolithic agricultural settlements. In Southeast Asia, in the Khorat Plateau region of modern Thailand, archeological evidence from Ban Chiang and Non Nok Tha shows that by c. 2000 B.C.E. villagers were producing sophisticated ceramics and cast bronze tools, as well as developing techniques of rice paddy cultivation, which may have influenced the later evolution of agriculture in Chinese civilization.  1
In continental North America, large mound builder societies began by c. 1500 B.C.E. in the lower Mississippi Valley (See North American Chiefdoms). The great ceremonial center and cluster of villages at Poverty Point, in Louisiana, may have contained more than 5000 inhabitants by 1000 B.C.E.  2
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD
  PREVIOUS NEXT