VII. The Contemporary Period, 1945–2000 > I. Africa, 1941–2000 > 2. Regions > c. East Africa
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
(See 1940)
 
c. East Africa
 
 
1944–49
 
Britain created multiracial legislative councils in Kenya (1944), Tanganyika and Uganda (1945), Northern Rhodesia (1948), and Nyasaland (1949). They had the opposite of their intended effect, spurring African nationalism as Africans rejected the colonial concept of multiracialism.  1
 
1945–56
 
Waves of strikes and urban protest in East and Central Africa, including Mombassa, Dar, Zanzibar, Southern Rhodesia, and Copperbelt (1956).  2
 
1946
 
Jomo Kenyatta returned to Kenya after an absence of 15 years.  3
 
1947
 
The Groundnut Scheme, a colonial development project designed to introduce large-scale mechanized agriculture, began at Kingwa, Tanganyika.  4
The Zanzibar Legislative Council was reformed and included two Africans, two Indians, three Arabs, and one European.  5
 
1949–60
 
Beginning of university education in region. The pace of university construction was still too slow. Makerere University was founded in 1949. By 1960, many more Africans from the region were seeking higher education abroad.  6
 
1949
 
The Groundnut Scheme harvest proved to be very disappointing. Similar big development projects were being funded throughout the continent, but results were rarely positive.  7
The Zanzibar Legislative Council demanded elections as a step toward self-government.  8
 
1951
 
The Matthew Commission reported on constitutional developments in Tanganyika. A legislative council was proposed, to include seven African, seven Asian, and seven European members.  9
 
1952–59
 
The Mau Mau rebellion broke out on Sept. 11, 1952, and a state of emergency in Kenya was declared in 1953. Rebellion was sparked by discontent among the Kikuyu over land lost to Europeans and was heightened by general discontent over government regulation of peasant farming and urban nationalist aspirations. In 1953, Jomo Kenyatta and five others were convicted of “managing” the Mau Mau, but the conviction was overturned by the Kenya Supreme Court. Then the East African Court of Appeals upheld the conviction. Political associations were prohibited during the state of emergency. Thousands of Africans died in the rebellion and the British military campaign to crush it.  10
 
1953
 
Julius Nyrere was elected president of the Tanganyika African Association.  11
 
1954
 
The Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) was established and became a mass party representing urban and rural grievances.  12
A state of emergency was declared in Buganda.  13
 
1955
 
The kabaka (traditional ruler) of Buganda returned from abroad.  14
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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