VII. The Contemporary Period, 1945–2000 > D. Latin America, 1945–2000 > 4. Mexico, 1946–2000 > d. Haiti
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
(See 1937, Oct)
d. Haiti
1946, Jan. 11
A military group under Col. Paul Magliore ousted Pres. Elie Lescot, took over the government, and installed Dumarsais Estimé as president. Estimé replaced mulatto civil servants with blacks and initiated reforms for urban and rural workers.  1
1948, Feb. 11
Pres. Estimé was overthrown by a military junta under Col. Paul Magliore.  2
Electoral suffrage was extended to women.  3
1956, Dec. 12
His regime weakened by a general strike, Magliore gave up the presidency.  4
1957, Feb. 7
The legislature elected Franck Sylvain as provisional president.  5
April 2
Accused of trying to fix upcoming elections, provisional president Sylvain resigned, and a provisional executive council took over.  6
May 26
Following a flare-up of civil war between the executive council and the forces of army Chief of Staff León Cantave, Daniel Fignolé took over as provisional president.  7
June 14
The army, led by Brig. Gen. Antonio Kebreau, ousted provisional president Fignolé and proclaimed a state of emergency.  8
Sept. 22
The presidential election resulted in victory for FRANÇOIS DUVALIER (1907–71).  9
Oct. 22
Amid a crisis with the U.S. over the fatal beating of an American by police, Duvalier became president, and the military junta resigned. Duvalier, known as “Papa Doc,” would rule the country until his death in 1971. He mixed mystic populist symbols, such as vodun (voodoo), with brutal repression. Duvalier expelled all mulattos from the civil service and made the army and police responsible only to him. To secure control he created the Tonton Macoutes, the most feared repressive arm of his regime. His “kleptocracy” enriched a small number of favorites while it impoverished the rest of the nation. Human rights were ignored, but at the same time Duvalier tried to maintain relations with the U.S. in order to ensure continued aid.  10
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.