III. The Postclassical Period, 500–1500 > C. South and Southeast Asia, 500–1500 > 3. South Asia, 1000–1500 > c. South India
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
c. South India
A successful invasion of Ceylon permitted assignment of Singhalese revenues to the Saiva great pagoda of Rajarajesvara, which Rajaraja I built at Tanjore, the masterpiece of baroque Dravidian architecture. He also endowed a Buddhist monastery built at Negapatam by a king of Srivijaya (Sumatra).  1
Rule of Rajendra Choladeva, who had helped his father since 1002.  2
A second invasion of Ceylon secured the regalia and treasure of the Pandya kings, so that a son of the Chola could be consecrated king of Pandya.  3
An invasion of Bengal enabled the Chola to assume a new title and establish a new capital near Trichinopoly.  4
c. 1030
By use of sea power, the Chola exacted tribute from Pegu, Malaiyur (Malay Peninsula), and the empire of Srivijaya.  5
Chalukya Somesvara I founded Kalyani, the capital until c. 1156. He drowned himself in Jain rites in the Tungabhadra, a sacred river of the south.  6
Rule of Chola Rajadhiraja I, who had aided his father since 1018. He was killed in battle at Koppam against Somesvara I of Kalyani.  7
Chola Virarajendra defeated the Chalukyas and gave his daughter to Vikramaditya VI. He founded a vedic college and a hospital. His two sons fell into conflict and extinguished their line by assassination (1074).  8
The Hoysalas, at first a petty dynasty, ruled at Dvarasamudra (Halebid) in Mysore.  9
The Chalukya-Chola dynasty, founded by Rajendra, son and grandson of Chola princesses, king of Vengi (b. 1070), who took the vacant throne of Kanchi (1074) and thenceforth ruled Vengi through a viceroy. His authority was recognized by the Ganga king of Kalinga.  10
Vikramaditya VI of Kalyani began a new era in place of the Saka era, but with small success. He built temples to Vishnu, but made gifts also to two Buddhist monasteries that must have been among the last in the south to withstand Hindu reaction and absorption. Bilhana of Kashmir, in return for hospitality, a blue parasol, and an elephant, wrote the Vikramankacharita in praise of his host.  11
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.